Biology XII Syllabus CBSE Board




Unit No.




VI Reproduction 14 30
VII Genetics and Evolution 18 40
VIII Biology and Human Welfare 14 30
IX Biotechnology and its Applications 10 30
X Ecology and Environment 14 30
Total 70 160


Unit VI: Reproduction

  1. Chapter-1: Reproduction in Organisms: Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; modes of reproduction- asexual and sexual reproduction; asexual reproduction - binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule formation, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants.
  2. Chapter-2: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants: Flower structure; development of male and female gametophytes; pollination - types, agencies and examples; outbreeding devices; pollen-pistil interaction; double fertilization; post fertilization events - development of endosperm and embryo, development of seed and formation of fruit; special modes- apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed dispersal and fruit formation.
  3. Chapter-3: Human Reproduction: Male and female reproductive systems; microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; gametogenesis - spermatogenesis and oogenesis; menstrual cycle; fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; pregnancy and placenta formation (elementary idea); parturition (elementary idea); lactation (elementary idea).
  4. Chapter-4: Reproductive Health: Need for reproductive health and prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs); birth control - need and methods, contraception and medical termination of pregnancy (MTP); amniocentesis; infertility and assisted reproductive technologies - IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (elementary idea for general awareness).

Unit VII: Genetics and Evolution

  1. Chapter-5: Principles of Inheritance and Variation: Heredity and variation: Mendelian inheritance; deviations from Mendelism – incomplete dominance, co-dominance, multiple alleles and inheritance of blood groups, pleiotropy; elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; chromosome theory of inheritance; chromosomes and genes; Sex determination - in human being, birds and honey bee; linkage and crossing over; sex linked inheritance - haemophilia, colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans -thalassemia; chromosomal disorders in humans; Down's syndrome, Turner's and Klinefelter's syndromes.
  2. Chapter-6: Molecular Basis of Inheritance: Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central Dogma; transcription, genetic code, translation; gene expression and regulation - lac operon; Genome, Human and rice genome projects; DNA fingerprinting.
  3. Chapter-7: Evolution: Origin of life; biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution (paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidences); Darwin's contribution, modern synthetic theory of evolution; mechanism of evolution - variation (mutation and recombination) and natural selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy - Weinberg's principle; adaptive radiation; human evolution.

Unit VIII: Biology and Human Welfare

  1. Chapter-8: Human Health and Diseases: Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (malaria, dengue, chikungunya, filariasis, ascariasis, typhoid, pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm) and their control; Basic concepts of immunology - vaccines; cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence - drug and alcohol abuse.
  2. Chapter-9: Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production: Animal husbandry, Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein.
  3. Chapter-10: Microbes in Human Welfare: Microbes in food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and microbes as bio-control agents and bio-fertilizers. Antibiotics; production and judicious use.

Unit IX: Biotechnology and its Applications

  1. Chapter-11: Biotechnology - Principles and Processes: Genetic Engineering (Recombinant DNA Technology).
  2. Chapter-12: Biotechnology and its Application: Application of biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, stem cell technology, gene therapy; genetically modified organisms - Bt crops; transgenic animals; biosafety issues, biopiracy and patents.

Unit X: Ecology and Environment

  1. Chapter-13: Organisms and Populations: Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche, population and ecological adaptations; population interactions - mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; population attributes - growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.
  2. Chapter-14: Ecosystem: Ecosystems: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; energy flow; pyramids of number, biomass, energy; nutrient cycles (carbon and phosphorous); ecological succession; ecological services - carbon fixation, pollination, seed dispersal, oxygen release (in brief).
  3. Chapter-15: Biodiversity and its Conservation: Biodiversity - Concept, patterns, importance; loss of biodiversity; biodiversity conservation; hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, Sacred Groves, biosphere reserves, national parks, wildlife, sanctuaries and Ramsar sites.
  4. Chapter-16: Environmental Issues: Air pollution and its control; water pollution and its control; agrochemicals and their effects; solid waste management; radioactive waste management; greenhouse effect and climate change impact and mitigation; ozone layer depletion; deforestation; case study exemplifying success story addressing environmental issue(s).


Practical should be conducted alongside the concepts taught in theory classes

Evaluation Scheme


One Major Experiment 5, 6, 8, 9 5
One Minor Experiment 2, 3, 4 4
Slide Preparation 1, 7 5
Spotting 7
Practical Record + Viva Voce
Credit to the students’ work over the academic session may be given
Investigatory Project and its Project and its Record + Viva Voce
Credit to the students’ work over the academic session may be given
Total 30
  • Prepare a temporary mount to observe pollen germination.
  • Collect and study soil from at least two different sites and study them for texture, moisture content, pH and water holding capacity. Correlate with the kinds of plants found in them.
  • Collect water from two different water bodies around you and study them for pH, clarity and presence of any living organism.
  • Study the presence of suspended particulate matter in air at two widely different sites.
  • Study the plant population density by quadrat method.
  • Study the plant population frequency by quadrat method.
  • Prepare a temporary mount of onion root tip to study mitosis.
  • Study the effect of different temperatures and three different pH on the activity of salivary amylase on starch.
  • Isolate DNA from available plant material such as spinach, green pea seeds, papaya, etc.
  • Flowers adapted to pollination by different agencies (wind, insects, birds).
  • Pollen germination on stigma through a permanent slide or scanning electron micrograph.
  • Identification of stages of gamete development, i.e., T.S. of testis and T.S. of ovary through permanent slides (from grasshopper/mice).
  • Meiosis in onion bud cell or grasshopper testis through permanent slides.
  • T.S. of blastula through permanent slides (Mammalian).
  • Mendelian inheritance using seeds of different colour/sizes of any plant.
  • Prepared pedigree charts of any one of the genetic traits such as rolling of tongue, blood groups, ear lobes, widow's peak and colourblindness.
  • Controlled pollination - emasculation, tagging and bagging.
  • Common disease causing organisms like Ascaris, Entamoeba, Plasmodium, any fungus causing ringworm through permanent slides, models or virtual images. Comment on symptoms of diseases that they cause.
  • Two plants and two animals (models/virtual images) found in xeric conditions. Comment upon their morphological adaptations.
  • Two plants and two animals (models/virtual images) found in aquatic conditions. Comment upon their morphological adaptations.


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