NCERT Solutions For Class 12 Geography Part B Chapter 11 International Trade

Q. Choose the right answers of the following from the given options.

(i) Trade between two countries is termed as:

  • (a) Internal trade
  • (b) External trade
  • (c) International trade
  • (d) Local trade
  • Ans.(c) International trade

(ii) Which one of the following is a land locked harbour?

  • (a) Vishakhapatnam
  • (b) Mumbai
  • (c) Ennor
  • (d) Haldia
  • Ans. (a) Vishakhapatnam

(iii) Most of India’s foreign trade is carried through:

  • (a) Land and sea
  • (b) Land and air
  • (c) Sea and air
  • (d) Sea
  • Ans. (c) Sea and air

Q. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

(i) Mention the characteristics of India’s foreign trade.

Ans. Over time, the nature of India’s overseas trade has evolved. Despite the fact that the overall volume of imports and exports increased, imports remained larger than the value of exports. Over the previous several years, there has also been a growth in the trade imbalance. This increase in the deficit is attributed to the price rise of crude petroleum, which forms a significant component of India’s international trade. The percentage of primary goods in India’s overall export has declined over the years, while the share of petroleum products has increased. The share of manufactured items has remained steady.

(ii) Distinguish between port and harbour.

Ans.

Ports Harbours
It is the location along the coast where the ship is anchored. It is an area at sea providing shelter to the ship.
It provides ship loading and unloading facilities. Ships are encouraged and protected from the elements such as waves and stromes.
Ports are generally artificially as well as natural. It is typically a natural construction.
It has several amenities, such as cargo warehouses and well-built transit networks. It has sufficient space for ships to be harboured.

(iii) Explain the meaning of hinterland.

Ans. The region served by a port is known as the hinterland. It is a port’s zone of influence. It is an area that is located inland from a river or a seashore. The products of this area are sent to the port for export, and imported material is distributed here for sale and consumption. For xexample, the hinterlands of Kolkata port include
Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and Jharkhand.

(iv) Name important items which India imports from different countries.

Ans. Food and associated products, petroleum, fertilisers, paper board manufacture and newsprint, capital goods, chemicals, pearls, precious and semi-precious stones, gold and silver are the most common things imported by India.

(v) Name the ports of India located on the east coast.

Ans. Major ports located on the east coast are Kolkata, Haldia, Paradip, Vishakhapatnam, Ennore, Chennai, and Tuticorin.

Q. Answer the following questions in about 150 words.

(i) Describe the composition of export and import trade of India.

  • Ans. Composition of Export trade of India:
  • 1. The percentage share of the agriculture and allied products have declined. Traditional exports of coffee, spices, tea, lentils, and other foods are on the decline.
  • 2. As oil prices have risen and India’s refining capacity has grown, the percentage of petroleum and crude products has climbed.
  • 3. The proportion of ore materials and manufactured items remained relatively consistent.
  • 4. Due to an increase in fruits, marine products, and sugar, the percentage share of other commodities has grown.
  • 5. Engineering goods are the largest commodities on the export list.
  • Composition of Import trade of India:
  • 1. During the 1950s and 1960s, food grains were the most common imports since India was in desperate need of them. After the 1970’s import of food grains stopped due to the Green Revolution.
  • 2. The share of Fertilisers and petroleum in import has risen due to development process.
  • 3. Machine and equipment, special steel, edible oil and chemicals were essentially imported.
  • 4. It denotes a faster rate of industrialisation and a higher level of life.
  • 5. Imports of capital goods such as non-electrical machinery, transportation, equipment, machinery, tools, and so on have grown.
  • 6. Special steel alloy and edible oils are also imported.

(ii) Write a note on the changing nature of the international trade of India.

Ans. India strives to add up its share in international trade within the next five years. It has already begun to take appropriate steps, such as liberalising imports, lowering import taxes, de-licensing, and switching from method to product patents. India has commercial ties with the majority of the world’s countries and trading
blocs.

  • 1. The largest imports and exports are from Asia and oceanic countries.
  • 2. Asia and Oceania accounted for 47.41% of India’s exports, followed by West Europe (23.80%) and America (20.42).
  • 3. Knowledge and information exchange have exceeded the trade of goods and commodities. India has emerged as a credible worldwide rival and is generating significant amounts of foreign cash as a result of its superior software understanding and proficiency in the field of information technology.
  • 4. Tourism has also incorporated India’s updated position in international trade.
  • There are some factor that decline in international trade with respect to export.
  • (a) Slow progress in production
  • (b) Increase in domestic consumption
  • (c) Increasing competition in the international market, etc.