NCERT Solutions For Class 12 Geography Part A Chapter 4 Human Development

Q. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.

(i) Which one of the following best describes development?

  • (a) an increase in size
  • (b) a constant in size
  • (c) a positive change in quality
  • (d) a simple change in the quality
  • Ans. (c) a positive change in quality

(ii) Which one of the following scholars introduced the concept of Human Development?

  • (a) Prof. Amartya Sen
  • (b) Ellen C. Semple
  • (c) Dr. Mahabub-ul-Haq
  • (d) Ratzel
  • Ans. (c) Dr. Mahabub-ul-Haq

Q. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

(i) What are the three basic areas of human development?

  • Ans. 1. Access to resources is used to measure an individual’s economic situation and capacity to acquire products that meet their needs. The statistic used to calculate this is per capita income, which measures people’s purchasing power in dollars.
  • 2. Health: The country’s population’s longevity reflects the country’s access to healthcare services and facilities. HDI is higher in countries with a longer life expectancy.
  • 3. Access to education: It is measured by the adult literacy rate and gross enrolment ratio.

(ii) Name the four main components of human development?

Ans. The four main pillars of human development are the concepts of equity, sustainability, productivity and empowerment.

(iii) How are countries classified on the basis of human development index?

Ans. Countries can be classified into four categories based on the human development index as: 

HDI Index Number of countries Score in Development
Very High Human Development 49 0.808
High Human Development 53 0.700-0.807
Medium human development 42 0.556-0.699
Low human development 43 < 0.555

Q. Answer the following questions in not more than 150 words.

(i) What do you understand by the term human development?

Ans.The concept of human development was proposed by Dr. Mahbub-ul-Haq. He defined human growth as a process that expands people’s options and enhances their quality of life. Under this approach, people are at the centre of all growth. These options are fluid and change over time. Human development’s main purpose is to create conditions that allow individuals to live meaningful lives. A meaningful life isn’t necessary for a fulfilling existence. It has to be a life with meaning. This implies that people must be healthy, able to develop their skills, engage in society, and have full access to resources, education, and health facilities in order to attain their goals. There should be no impediment to a person’s advancement owing to a lack of life opportunities. The essential parts of human development include living a long and healthy life, gaining knowledge, and having enough resources to live a good existence. Building people’s health, education, and resource availability are crucial to expanding their options. People’s options are also limited if they lack the necessary skills in these areas.

(ii) What do equity and sustainability refer to within the concept of human development?

Ans. Equity refers to ensuring that everyone has equal access to opportunity. People must have equal access to opportunities regardless of their gender, ethnicity, income, caste. Its goal is to provide equal chances to everyone, with no particular advantages or restrictions for any individual or group of individuals. Access to resources is critical for human  growth to fulfill decisions and live a meaningful life. For example, in every country, it’s fascinating to examine which group accounts for most school dropouts. This should lead to a better understanding of why such conduct occurs.

In India, many women and people from economically and socially disadvantaged backgrounds drop out of school. It demonstrates how a lack of information limits the options available to these populations. “Using resources in a way that meets the requirements of current generations without jeopardizing their availability for future generations” is how sustainability is described. The term “sustainability” refers to the availability of possibilities being constant. Each generation must have the same options in order for human growth to be sustainable. All-natural, financial, and human resources must be exploited with the future in mind. If these resources are misused, subsequent generations will have fewer chances. For instance, if the current generation abuses the primary resource of coal, it will become scarce in the future. When sufficient coal is not accessible to future generations, power generating capabilities will be hampered, affecting various infrastructure, industrial, and other operations, which will severely impact future generations’ choices and quality of life.