NCERT Solutions For Class 12 Geography Part A Chapter 5 Primary Activites

Q. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below:

(i) Which one of the following is not a plantation crop?

  • (a) Coffee
  • (b) Sugarcane
  • (c) Wheat
  • (d) Rubber
  • Ans. (c) Wheat

(ii) In which one of the following countries co-operative farming was the most successful experiment?

  • (a) Russia
  • (b) Denmark
  • (c) India
  • (d) The Netherlands
  • Ans. (b) Denmark

(iii) Growing of flowers is called:

  • (a) Truck farming
  • (b) Factory farming
  • (c) Mixed fanning
  • (d) Floriculture
  • Ans. (d) Floriculture

(iv) Which one of the following types of cultivation was developed by European colonists?

  • (a) Kolkoz
  • (b) Viticulture
  • (c) Mixed farming
  • (d) Plantation
  • Ans. (d) Plantation

(v) In which one of the following regions isextensive commercial grain cultivation not practised?

  • (a) American Canadian prairies
  • (b) European Steppes
  • (c) Pampas of Argentina
  • (d) Amazon Basin
  • Ans. (d) Amazon Basin

(vi) In which of the following types of agriculture is the farming of citrus fruit very important?

  • (a) Market gardening
  • (b) Mediterranean agriculture
  • (c) Plantation agriculture
  • (d) Co-operative farming
  • Ans. (b) Mediterranean agriculture

(vii) Which one type of agriculture amongst the following is also called ‘slash and burn agriculture’?

  • (a) Extensive subsistence farming
  • (b) Primitive subsistence farming
  • (c) Extensive commercial grain cultivation
  • (d) Mixed farming
  • Ans. (b) Primitive subsistence farming

(viii) Which one of the following does not follow monoculture?

  • (a) Dairy farming
  • (b) Mixed farming
  • (c) Plantation agriculture
  • (d) Commercial grain farming
  • Ans. (b) Mixed farming

Q. Answer the following questions in about 30 words:

(i) Future of shifting cultivation is bleak. Discuss.

Ans. Future of shifting cultivation is bleak. The reasons are:

  1. One of the major problems of shifting cultivation is that the cycle of jhum becomes less and less due to loss of fertility in different parcels.
  2. There are several restrictions imposed by governments through forest acts etc., which hinder the free movement of tribes and practice of shifting cultivation.
  3. Shifting cultivation is sustainable in nature, hence it is unable to meet with the market demand and therefore there is no scope for it in the increasing globalised markets.
  4. With the infiltration of non tribals in the tribal areas, tribals are adopting to modem agricultural practices which are more productive and environmentally sustainable.
  5. To support a small population, a huge land resource base is required, ultimately it leads to soil erosion and land degradation.

(ii) Market gardening is practiced near urban areas. Why?

Ans. Market gardening is specialised in the cultivation of high value crops such as vegetables, fruits and flowers, solely for the urban markets. It is practised near urban areas because:

  1. Farms are small and are located where there are good transportation links with the urban centre where high income group of consumers is located.
  2. The crops are costly, hence they need to be situated close to a market where people have high purchasing power and also demand for high valued crops. In such situation urban areas are the perfect markets.
  3. These crops are perishable in nature; hence farms cannot be situated far away from the main market.

(iii) Large scale dairy farming is the result of the development of transportation and refrigeration.

Ans. Market gardening is specialised in the cultivation of high value crops such as vegetables, fruits and flowers, solely for the urban markets. It is practised near urban areas because:

  1. Dairy products require quick and suitable transportation as these items are perishable.
  2. The development of transportation and refrigeration have increased the duration of storage of various dairy products.
  3. Modem transportation such as refrigerated trucks, ships with special cargoes and faster means of transportation like airways provide with adequate facilities, which allow transportation of dairy products to far off markets without spoilage.
  4. Refrigeration prevents dairy products from getting spoiled and increases their durability.

Q. Answer the following questions in not more than 150 words:

(i) Differentiate between Nomadic Herding and Commercial Livestock Rearing.

Ans. The difference between Nomadic Herding and Commercial Livestock Rearing are:

Nomadic Herding:

  1. In this herders move with their animals from one place to another.
  2. It is a primitive subsistence activity.
  3. Multiple animals are kept depending upon the region.
  4. They practice transhumance. The area of a tribe is decided by matter of tradition.
  5. Little or no capital is utilised.
  6. Modern technological support is not used.

Commercial Livestock Rearing:

  1. It is a modern practice of rearing animals for export of animal products, where animals like
    horse, sheep are reared to obtain products like meat, hides etc. for sales in national as well as international markets.
  2. It is a modern, scientific and market oriented activity.
  3. Single type of animals are kept.
  4. It is carried out on huge permanent ranches which are scientifically managed parcels associated with western developed countries.
  5. High capital intake and spent on caring, feeding, breeding of animals.
  6. It is highly mechanized.

(ii) Discuss the important characteristic features of plantation agriculture. Name a few important plantation crops from different countries.

Ans. The important characteristic features of plantation agriculture are:

  1. It was introduced by the Europeans in colonies situated in the tropics.
  2. Some of the important plantation crops are tea, coffee, cocoa, rubber, cotton, oil palm, sugarcane, bananas and pineapples.
  3. In this type of farming are large estatesor plantations, large capital investment,managerial and technical support, scientific methods of cultivation, single crop specialisation, cheap labour, and a good system of transportation which links the estates to the factories and markets for the export of the products.
  4. Today, ownership of the majority of plantations has passed into the hands of the government or the nationals of the countries concerned.

Few important plantation crops from different countries are:

  1. The French established cocoa and coffee plantations in west Africa.
  2. The British set uplarge tea gardens in India and Sri Lanka, rubber plantations in Malaysia and sugarcane and banana plantations in West Indies.
  3. Spanish and Americans invested heavily in coconut and sugarcane plantations in the Philippines.
  4. The Dutch once had monopoly over sugarcane plantation in Indonesia.
  5. Some coffee fazendas (large plantations) in Brazil are still managed by Europeans.