NCERT Solutions For Class 12 Geography Part A Chapter 6 Secondary Activities

Q. Differentiate between primary and secondary activities. 

Ans.

Primary Activities Secondary Activities
1. Those activities, which depend directly on nature for extraction of resources. They convert raw material obtained from primary activities into finished goods of higher value.
2. It includes activities like agriculture, mining, fishing, etc. It is concerned with manufacturing, processing and construction (infrastructure) industries.
3. They are predominant in under developed or developing countries. They are predominant in under developed or developing countries.
4. They earn low value and some need to be processed by secondary activities for sale in market. As economies develop, the share of secondary activities increase.
5 As economies develop, the share of primary activities decline. As economies develop, the share of secondary activities increase.
6. They form the basis of village economies. Secondary activities along with tertiary, quaternary and quinary activities form the basis of urban centers.

Q. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below. 

(i) Which one of the following statements is wrong?

  • (a) Cheap water transport has facilitated the jute mill industry along the Hugli.
  • (b) Sugar, cotton textiles and vegetable oils are footloose industries.
  • (c) The development of hydro-electricity and petroleum reduced, to a great extent, the importance of coal energy as a locational factor for industry.
  • (d) Port towns in India have attracted industries.
  • Ans. (b) Sugar, cotton textiles and vegetable oils are footloose industries.

(ii) In which one of the following types of economy are the factors of production owned individually ?

  • (a) Capitalist
  • (b) Mixed
  • (c) Socialist
  • (d) None
  • Ans. (a) Capitalist

(iii) Which one of the following types of industries produces raw materials for other industries?

  • (a) Cottage Industries
  • (b) Small-scale Industries
  • (c) Basic Industries
  • (d) Footloose Industries
  • Ans. (c) Basic Industries

(iv) Which one of the following pairs is correctly matched ?

  • (a) Automobile industry … Los Angeles
  • (b) Shipbuilding industry … Lusaka
  • (c) Aircraft industry … Florence
  • (d) Iron and Steel industry … Pittsburgh
  • Ans. (d) Iron and Steel industry … Pittsburgh

Q. Write a short note on the following in about 30 words. 

(i) High-Tech industry

Ans. High-tech industry, the latest generation of manufacturing activities, is best understood as the application of intensive research and development efforts leading to the manufacture of products of an advanced scientific and engineering character. Highly skilled white-collar workers greatly outnumber the actual production workers. Robotics on the assembly line, computer-aided design, electronic controls of smelting and refining processes are notable examples. 

(ii) Manufacturing

Ans. Manufacturing literally means ‘to make by hand’ including goods ‘made by machines’. It is essentially a process which involves transforming raw materials into finished goods of higher value for sale in local or distant markets.

(iii) Footloose industries

Ans. Foot loose industries are not dependent on any specific raw material or weight losing rather largely depend on the component parts which can be obtained anywhere. They produce in small quantity with a small labour force employed. These are not polluting industries with accessibilty by road network being an important factor of location.

Q. Answer the following in not more than 150 words.

(i) Differentiate between primary and secondary activities.

Ans. The differences between Primary Activities and Secondary Activities are:

Primary Activities Secondary Activities
1. Activities which include the production of goods and services by the exploitation of natural resources. Activities which transform raw materials into finished goods through a manufacturing process having more utility.
2. It is generally unorganised process. It is generally organised process.
3. It is generally organised process. It involves scientific and modern techniques of production.
4. It is practiced by unskilled labour majorly, commonly referred to as the ‘Red-Collar Workers’. It is practiced by unskilled as well as skilled labours, commonly referred to as the ‘Blue-Collar Workers’.
5 For example – Agriculture, dairy, animal husbandry, fishing, mining, forestry, hunting, gathering, etc. For example–Manufacturing, production and conversion of goods, trade and commerce, engineering, transport and communication, etc.

(ii) Discuss the major trends of modern industrial activities especially in the developed countries of the world.

Ans. Changes in the modern industrial activities and its spatial distribution can be better understood in the context of the inter-connected features that move in the same direction during the period of development process, which are as following:

1. Economic Growth Rate
2. Level of Spatial Inequality
3. Level of Regional Inequality
4. Level of Geographical Concentration
5. Population Growth

The structure and form of the industries change with the progress of economy, scientific and technological advancements. The developed countries like the U.S.A., Germany, France, etc. set up or shift industries with sophisticated parts and labour-intensive units with low technology towards the less-developed countries.

For example–The textile industry in U.K. that was witnessing constant growth, declined with the shift of the entire industry to a less-developed country with low labour costs like India.

Germany developed the iron and steel industry by importing iron from Brazil but today, Brazil makes steel and Germany imports steel to work it into engineering products such as, cars, computers, etc.

(iii) Explain why high-tech industries in many countries are being attracted to the peripheral areas of major metropolitan centres.

Ans. High-tech industries are the latest generation of manufacturing activities and best understood as the application of intensive research and
development efforts leading to the manufacture of products of an advanced scientific and engineering character.

Neat and low spaced, modern, dispersed, office-plant-lab buildings rather than massive assembly structures, factories and storage areas mark the high-tech industrial landscape. Planned business parks for high-tech start-ups have become part of regional and local development schemes. High-tech industries are regionally concentrated, self-sustained and highly specialized. The Silicon Valley near San Francisco and Silicon Forest near Seattle are such examples where manufacturing contributes significantly to the world economy.

Robotics on the assembly line, computer-aided design (CAD) and manufacturing, electronic controls of smelting and refining processes, constant development of new chemical, etc. are a few other notable examples.

(iv) Africa has immense natural resources and yet it is industrially the most backward continent. Comment. 

Ans. Africa has immense natural resources and yet it is industrially the most backward continent. It has the reserve of minerals like copper, manganese, mineral oil, coal and others. The African countries are backward in manufacturing due to the following reasons:

  1. Climatic Conditions: The climate of most of the African countries where mineral-based industries can be set is unfavourable.
  2. Shortage of Labour: The adverse conditions of the climate hinders the labourers to work in the industries.
  3. Lack of Transport Facility: The African countries could not develop sufficient transport and communication services which act as a boon to industrialisation.
  4. Modern Technology: The most of African countries do not have modern technology and thus, lack in industrialisation since the technological innovations are important for manufacturing.
  5. Energy Source: Though the African countries are rich in coal, petroleum and water resources but they are not developed enough to be able to support the industries.