NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 6 United Nations and its Organizations

NCERT Questions

117. Mark correct or wrong against each of the following statements about the veto power:

  • (a) Only the permanent members of the Security Council possess the veto power.
  • (b) It’s a kind of negative power.
  • (c) The Secretary-General uses this power when not satisfied with any decision.
  • (d) One veto can stall a Security Council resolution.

Ans. (a) Correct

(b) Correct

(c) Wrong

(d) Correct

118. Mark correct or wrong against each of the following statements about the way the UN functions:

  • (a) All security and peace related issues are dealt within the Security Council.
  • (b) Humanitarian policies are implemented by the main organs and specialised agencies spread across the globe.
  • (c) Having consensus among five permanent members on security issues is vital for its implementation.
  • (d) The members of the General Assembly are automatically the members of all other principal organs and specialised agencies of the UN.

Ans. (a) Correct

(b) Wrong

(c) Correct

(d) Wrong

119. Which among the following would give more weightage to India’s proposal for permanent membership in the Security Council?

  • (a) Nuclear capability
  • (b) It has been a member of the UN since its inception.
  • (c) It is located in Asia.
  • (d) India’s growing economic power and stable political system.
  • Ans. (d) India’s growing economic power and stable political system.

120. The UN agency concerned with the safety and peaceful use of nuclear technology is:

  • (a) The UN Committee on Disarmament
  • (b) International Atomic Energy Agency
  • (c) UN International Safeguard Committee
  • (d) None of the above
  • Ans. (b) International Atomic Energy Agency

121. WTO is serving as the successor to which of the following organisations:

  • (a) General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs
  • (b) General Arrangement on Trade and Tariffs
  • (c) World Health Organisation
  • (d) UN Development Programme
  • Ans. (a) General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs

122. Fill in the blanks:

  • (a) The prime objective of UN is ______.
  • (b) The highest functionary of the UN is called ______.
  • (c) The UN Security Council has______ permanent and________non-permanent members.
  • (d) ___________is the present UN Secretary- General.
  • Ans. (a) to maintain peace and security
  • (b) Secretariat
  • (c) 5, 10
  • (d) Antonio Guterres

123. Match the principal organs and agencies of the UN with their functions:

A.
B.
1. Economic and Social Council (a) Oversees the global financial system.
2. International Court of Justice (b) Reservation of international peace and security.
3. International Atomic Energy Agency (c) Looks into the economic and social welfare of the member countries.
4. Security Council (d) Safety and peaceful use of nuclear technology.
5. UN High Commission for Refugees (e) Resolves disputes between and among member countries.
6. World Trade Organisation (f) Provides shelter and medical help during emergencies.
7. International Monetary Fund (g) Debates and discusses global issues.
8. General Assembly (h) Administration and coordination of UN affairs.
9. World Health Organisation (i) Providing good health for all.
10. Secretariat (j) Facilitates free trade among member countries.

Ans. 

A.
B.
1. Economic and Social Council (c) Looks into the economic and social welfare of the member countries.
2. International Court of Justice (e) Resolves disputes between and among member countries.
3. International Atomic Energy Agency (c)(d) Safety and peaceful use of nuclear technology.
4. Security Council (b) Reservation of international peace and security.
5. UN High Commission for Refugees (f) Provides shelter and medical help during emergencies.
6. World Trade Organisation (j) Facilitates free trade among member countries.
7. International Monetary Fund (a) Oversees the global financial system.
8. General Assembly (g) Debates and discusses global issues.
9. World Health Organisation (i) Providing good health for all.
10. Secretariat (h) Administration and coordination of UN affairs.

124. What are the functions of Security Council?

Ans. The main function of Security Council are:

  1. It maintains international peace and security in accordance with the principles and purposes of the UN.
  2. It investigates any dispute or situation which might dead to international friction.
  3. It recommends methods to adjust such disputes among the nations.
  4. It can take military action against an aggressor.
  5. It recommends the admission of new members to the UNSC.
  6. It elects the judges of International Court of Justice and appoints the Secretary-General by recommending to the General Assembly.
  7. It can apply economic sanctions to stop any aggression.

125. As a citizen of India, how would you support India’s candidature for the permanent membership of Security Council? Justify your proposal.

Ans. As a citizen of India, we may support India’s candidature for the permanent membership of Security Council.

  1. India itself also wishes to be a permanent member in a restructured UN.
  2. India is the second most populous country in the world comprising almost one-fifth of the world population.
  3. India is also the world’s largest democracy.
  4. India has participated in virtually all of the initiatives of the UN.
  5. Its role in the UN’s peacekeeping efforts is a long and substantial one.
  6. The country’s economic emergence on the world stage is another factor that perhaps justifies India’s claim to a permanent seat in the Security Council.
  7. India has also made regular financial contributions to the UN and never faltered on its payments.

126. Critically evaluate the difficulties involved in implementing the suggested reforms to reconstruct the UN.

Ans. The following are the question marks in implementing the suggested reforms to reconstruct the UN:

  1. How big an economic and military power may qualify to become UNSC membership?
  2. What level of budget contribution should be enabled?
  3. No guarantee to be effective as Council Member in respect for democracy and human rights.
  4. Why should the issue of equitable representation decided by geography? Why not by levels of economic development?
  5. Why not to give more seats to members of the developing world?

All the above mentioned criteria which were adopted but not universally accepted. Hence, the difficulties were involved.

127. Though the UN has failed in preventing wars and related miseries, nations prefer its continuation. What makes the UN an indispensable organisation?

Ans. Though the UN has failed in preventing wars and related miseries, nations prefer its continuation. The factors that make the UN an indispensable organisation are:

  1. Interdependence and globalisation is not possible without the international organisations such as the UN.
  2. To enforce cooperation on the issues of poverty, unemployment, environmental degradation, crime rate, etc.
  3. To provide financial assistance to the developing countries to stabilise economy all over the world the UN and its specialised agencies are always required.
  4. The UN works as a forum to solve any international dispute among nations and sort out the best possible way.

128. “Reforming the UN means restructuring of the Security Council”. Do you agree with this statement? Give arguments for or against this
position.

Ans. Yes, we agree with the statement because Security Council plays a crucial role in functioning of the UN. In today’s scenario power equations have been changed with the disintegration of the USSR and many new countries are entering into the UN:

  1. The UN Charter has given a privileged position to permanent members to bring stability all over the world. This position remains the same and no one is allowed to
    enter.
  2. Except permanent members enjoy veto power to be placed in a valuable position.
  3. Permanent members category is from industrialised developed country which should be balanced by enhancing representation from developing countries to become either permanent or non-permanent members.