# Oswal Practice Papers CBSE Class 12 Physical Education Solutions (Practice Paper - 7)

## Section-A

1. (d) SuptaVajarasana

Explanation :

The name of this yoga asana comes from Kati meaning waist and chakra meaning circle. Katichakrasana, literally means rotation of the waist. It gives a nice stretch to the waist and helps in making it more flexible and supple.

2. (b) Instrumental Aggression

Explanation :

Instrumental aggression occurs when someone purposefully behaves aggressively in order to accomplish a specific goal because there is no emotional motivation behind this sort of aggression, only a purpose, it differs from aggressive aggression. In addition, it alludes to cognitive hostility.

3. (a) Momentum

Explanation :

As per the law, the rate of change of momentum is proportional to the resultant force and takes place in the direction of the resultant force.
When a net force acts on an object, the acceleration of the object it produces is directly proportional to the magnitude of the net force, is in the same direction as the net force and inversely proportional to the mass of the object. The more mass the thing has, the more net force has to be used to move it.

4. (c) Ballistic

Explanation :

Ballistic Method performs the movement with a swing and rhythm. As the stretching is done rhythmically, it is called Ballistic Method.

5. (a) Both assertion (A) and reason (R) are true and reason (R) is the correct explanation of assertion (A).

Explanation :

Exercises known as isometrics are those in which there are no obvious movements. Therefore, it is impossible to observe isometric workouts. In these workouts, the labour is done invisibly, much like pushing a wall. When performing such exercises, the muscle length remains unchanged, therefore the
name “iso” metric.

6. (c) Long term effect of aerobic exercise leads to reduced storage of myoglobin.

Explanation :

Long term effect of aerobic exercise is to increase the storage of myoglobin which transports oxygen to mitochondria. Large amount of myoglobin means large amount of oxygen and large amount of energy.

7. (b) Biomechanics

Explanation :

Biomechanics is the study of the mechanics of living organisms and their structures. It applies principles from physics and mechanical engineering to understand how living organisms move and interact with their surroundings.

8. (c) Second class lever, Load: Ankle joint

Explanation :

The foot acting as a whole is a second-class lever when the fulcrum is the ball of the foot, and the body weight is lifted to the toes by force at the heel.
Example: When throwing a ball:
Fulcrum = Ankle joint
Effort = Gastrocnemius

9. (c) 1.-(iv), 2.-(i), 3.-(ii), 4.-(iii)

Explanation :

Goal Setting theory is widely used as a cognitive approach for motivation. The goal-setting concept maintains that a stronger drive for actions and behaviour is fuelled by quality of information on time set for task attainment along with task difficulty level and specificity of the task.
Teaching coaching pedagogies used in sports training for planned outcome is largely responsible in guiding and maintaining the desired behaviour of athletes.

1. Guided Discovery Method: Athletes are highly motivated if allowed to find solutions to the problems by themselves rather than if they are just made to do things as per instruction.
2. Social Support Strategy: Participation in sports and taking up exercise is greatly influenced by an understanding of the social networking and perception of people around them.
3. Initiating group activities and engagement of family and peers in sports participation helps in increased participation in sports and exercise.
4. Awards and rewards work effectively as a motivation force for athletes to pursue sports with consistency and continuity.

10. (a) Both assertion (A) and reason (R) are true and reason (R) is the correct explanation of assertion (A).

Explanation :

Phytates are abundantly found in unrefined cereals and millets. These phytates bind iron, zinc, calcium and magnesium and make these nutrients unavailable for digestion. On germination the phytate content is reduced.

11. (b) Iodine

Explanation :

Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of goiter. The body needs iodine to produce thyroid hormone.

12. (d) Halasana

Explanation :

Hala means plough. In Halasana, the shape of the body resembles the Indian plough in its final position.

13. (d) 42

Explanation :

The formula use to determine number of matches in Double League is N(N - 1).
If 7 teams are participating then 7(7 – 1) = 42
Number of matches will be 42.

14. (b) Logistics

Explanation :

Logistics committee has a wider scope of work ranging from transportation, boarding and lodging to refreshment, decoration and conducting ceremonies that form a part of the event.

15. (c) Opportunities for social interaction and learning from peers

Explanation :

Inclusive education allows children with special needs to learn alongside their peers in mainstream educational settings.

16. (b) Vertebral column

Explanation :

Kyphosis is an exaggerated, forward rounding of the upper back. In older people, kyphosis is often due to weakness in the spinal bones that causes them to compress or crack. Other types of kyphosis can appear in infants or teens due to malformation of the spine or wedging of the spinal bones over time.

17. (d) Partial curl up for upper body flexibility

Explanation :

The curl up test measures abdominal muscular strength and endurance of the abdominals and hip flexors, important in back support and core stability. This test is not a part of Rikli and Jones Senior Citizen Fitness Test.

18. (b) Estrogen and progesterone

Explanation :

Female sex hormones include estrogen, progesterone, and small quantities of testosterone. Estrogen and progesterone are important for overall body health. These hormones also regulate a woman’s periods.

## Section-B

19. The force acting along two surfaces in contact which opposes the motion of one body over the other is called the force of friction.

Types of friction are:

1. Static Friction: The opposing force that comes into play when one body tends to move over another surface but the actual motion has not yet started because of static friction, extra force is required to start the motion of stationary objects. e.g., if you try to push a heavy object with less force then because of static friction between the object and the floor, the object will not move. To make the object move, you need to exert more force than the force of static friction.
2. Kinetic friction: Kinetic friction is the opposing force that comes into play when one body is actually moving over the surface of another body.
Friction is usually called a necessary evil. It means that it is essential in games and sports. For example, athletes use spikes and football players use studs to have appropriate friction, without friction they are unable to run fast. Even gymnasts use lime powder on their palms to perform on
horizontal bar, uneven bar and roman rings. On the other hand, friction is disadvantageous in some games. In cycling, there should not be more friction between road and the tyres of the cycle. If there is more friction there will be more wastage of energy of the rider and leads to damage of equipment.

20. Four ways through which women participation in sport across age group can be enhanced are:

1. Modification in Legislation
2. Better coverage of women sports
3. Improvement in fitness and wellness movements
4. Educating Women

21. A microcycle refers to the smallest unit usually a week of training. It is the shortest training cycle, typically lasting a week with the goal of facilitating a focused block of training. Even though 5 to 10 days is not adequate to achieve most training tasks, it forms an integral part of the entire training process.

22. A diet that contains the right amount of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, minerals, salts, vitamins and water is called a balanced diet.
Elements of balance diet are:

1. Carbohydrates: These provide essential growth as well as help in repairing muscles and other body tissues.
2. Proteins: Body building elements, for example: Fish, meat are good source of it.
3. Fats: These are the source of energy and play an important role in many chemical processes in the body.
4. Minerals: These are essential for proper growth and functioning of the body.
5. Water: Cleans Body and regulates the temperature of the body.

23. The second law states that, the rate of change of momentum of a body is proportional to the resultant force acting on the body and is in the same direction. This explains how the velocity of an object changes when it is acted upon by an external force.
When a body is acted upon by a force, its resulting acceleration is proportional to the force and inversely proportional to the mass. Hence, with a constant mass, the greater the force, the greater the acceleration.
Or in other words, the greater the mass (of the object being accelerated), the greater the amount of force needed (to accelerate the object).
It can be expressed as a mathematical equation:

F = MA

Application in Sports:

1. Sprinter can increase acceleration by increasing the force that he applies backward and downward against the surface on which he is running and, if he should double the force, then acceleration would double and, similarly, if he should keep the force constant and reduce mass, he would increase
acceleration.
2. When a ball is thrown, kicked, or struck with an implement, it tends to travel in the direction of the line of action of the applied force. The greater the amount of force applied, the greater the speed the ball has.
3. To kick the ball high and quickly in soccer, a team will need to exert more effort.
Due to the importance of this rule of motion in soccer, you can determine how much force is required to pass the ball or kick it into the goal without missing.

OR

Body Mass Index (BMI) is an index of weight-for-height commonly used to classify overweight and obesity. It is defined as a person’s weight in kilograms divided by the square of his/her height in meters (kg/m²).
According to National Institute of Health “A healthy weight is considered to be one that is between 19 and 25 (BMI). If the BMI is between 25-29 an adult is considered overweight. If the BMI is 30 or greater, the person is considered to be obese”.

## Section-C

24. Disability Etiquette is a set of guidelines dealing specifically with how to approach a person with a disability. Disability etiquette refers to communicating and interacting respectfully and courteously with people who have disabilities.

1. Positive and Energetic Attitude: A person with special needs should be approached with positive energy and attitude. Make a welcoming and friendly approach. One should not feel sorry for or, in some circumstances, even be afraid of the person.
2. Social Etiquette: Make environments accessible to those with disabilities and comfortable for those with special needs. Do not presume to know what they are capable of. Help should only be offered if it seems to be necessary. Do not presume someone requires assistance just because they have a disability. People with disabilities may typically move around without any problems if the environment is accessible.
3. Physical etiquette: The height disparity between a wheelchair user and someone who is able to walk might engender an unsaid sense of superiority and inferiority. When it is appropriate and practical, sit or stand eye level with the person with a disability. It is a good idea to find a table to sit at so that any obvious distinctions, like a wheelchair, can be removed.

25. Common types of food intolerances are:

1. Lactose intolerance happens when there are reduced levels of the enzyme lactase in the digestive system needed to break down the ‘sugar’ found in cow’s milk or where there has been a gastrointestinal infection which results in a reduction of the lactase enzyme levels (secondary lactose intolerance). Lactose found in cow’s milk and other dairy produce including cheese and yoghurt.
2. Gluten intolerance gluten is a mixture of proteins found in foods like wheat, barley and rye. Gluten can be found in foods like bread, biscuits, crackers, pasta and cakes. Some people with a gluten intolerance may also need to avoid oats because of contamination issues.
3. Non-Coeliac gluten sensitivity is a mild form of gluten intolerance the exact role of the immune system in non-coeliac gluten sensitivity is unclear and further research is needed.

26. All the procedures that leaders design to evaluate success are referred to as controlling. It entails setting performance expectations, gauging actual performance, and looking for discrepancies between the two.
Controlling is a crucial component of management since it includes providing instructions to the staff and ensuring that they follow those instructions. For a sports event to be successful, instructions given to members of the organising committee towards accomplishing a common goal, in this case organising a sports event, must be followed out honestly. To ensure efficient and effective use of resources, higher order management personnel supervise lower order personnel.
Thus, controlling is crucial in managing sporting events.

27. Osteoporosis causes bones to become weak and brittle, so brittle that a fall or even mild stress such as bending over can cause a fracture.
Causes of Osteoporosis are as follows:

1. Women are much more likely to develop osteoporosis than men. Lowered sex hormone levels tend to weaken bone. The reduction of oestrogen levels in women at menopause is one of the strongest risk factors for developing osteoporosis.
2. The old age people are at greater risk of osteoporosis.
3. Having a parent or sibling with osteoporosis puts greater risk to have osteoporosis.
4. Low calcium intake contributes to diminished bone density, early bone loss and an increased risk of fractures.
5. Severely restricting food intake and being underweight weakens bone in both men and women.
6. Long-term use of oral or injected cortico-steroid medications, such as prednisone and cortisone, interferes with the bone-rebuilding process.

28. Dislocation of joints is mainly caused by sudden trauma causing the joint go beyond its limits. A joint dislocation, also called luxation, occurs when there is an abnormal separation in the joint, where two or more bones meet. A partial dislocation is referred to as a subluxation.
Causes of dislocation of Joints: Forceful impact between the body and another player or equipment, a hard surface may cause dislocation of joints and associated bones. Dislocation can occur at any major joint like shoulders, knees, or minor joint like toes, fingers, etc.

1. Dislocation of the Jaw: This injury impacts one or both of the joints connecting the lower jaw to the skull. It may be caused when the chin forcefully strikes another object, or when the face is hit by a strong external force.
2. Dislocation of shoulder joint: In this type of dislocation, the ball of the humerus comes out of the socket. This may be caused by extreme rotation of the shoulder joint or when the joint is hit by a sudden blow or is impacted by a fall against a hard surface.
3. Dislocation of hip joint: A hip dislocation occurs when the head of the high bone is forced out of its socket in the hip bone.
4. Dislocation of the wrist: It is dislocation of any of the eight carpal bones making up the wrist. This may happen when the carpal bones, which are small bones, are hit or come into contact with another force which is too great.

Management of Dislocation of Joints:
RICE (Rest, Ice, Compression, and Elevation) is the first line of management for dislocation in bone injuries.
The displaced joint may occasionally return to its original position naturally after this treatment. Applying ice to the damaged location as soon as possible prevents internal bleeding and helps maintain the clot organization as small as feasible. This promotes quick healing and repair. Cold and compression must be kept on for at least an hour for small joints and up to 24 hours for bigger joints. Fixation and support should be avoided for two days, depending on the severity of the damage, to ensure good hemorrhage management. The injury should be appropriately splinted and maintained while transporting the patient to the doctor for evaluation in order to prevent any more harm to the area.

OR

A trajectory is a path described by a moving object or the path followed by a projectile. Examples are kicking a soccer ball, a throw in cricket, throwing a hammer etc.
Factors affecting projectile trajectory are:

1. Propelling Force: The propelling force produces certain effects depending upon its point and direction of application. If the application is directly through the projectiles centre of gravity, only linear motion results from the force.
As the projecting force is moved further from the centre of gravity, rotatory motion of the object increases at the expense of linear motion.
If the force is below the objects centre of gravity backspin results. Forward spin results when the force is above the centre of gravity. When the force is off centre to the left clockwise spin results and when it is off centre to right counter-clockwise spin occurs.
2. Force of Gravity: As soon as contact is broken with a projected object the force of gravity begins to diminish the upward velocity of the object. Finally, gravity overcomes the effects of the upward component of the projectile’s motion and the object begins to descend. The factors that determine how soon gravity will cause the object to descend are:
(i) Weight (mass) of the object
(ii) Amount of force driving it upward
(iii) The effects of air resistance on the object
3. Effect of Air Resistance: As the speed of an object increases air resistance has a greater retarding effect. The more surface area an object presents in the direction of movement the greater will be the effect of air resistance.

29. (a) Knockout
(b) N-1; (where N is number of teams)
(c) Economical
(d) Eliminated

OR

(d) Bye

## Section-D

30. (a) contracting muscles
(b) lactate acid
(c) increase
(d) micro-tears

OR

(d) muscle hypertrophy

31. (a) childhood
(b) uncooperative
(c) anxiety issues
(d) friends

OR

(d) muscle hypertrophy

## Section-E

32. Nadi means “channel” and Shodhana means “purification”, therefore it is known as channel for purification. Nadi Shodhana, also known as Anulom Vilom or Alternate Nostril Breathing.

1. Take up a comfortable position for meditation. Maintain a straight spine and head. The eyes should be closed.
2. Make jnana mudra with your right hand. Close the right nostril with the right thumb. Inhale through the left nostril for 5 counts.
3. Release the thumb pressure on the right nostril after five breaths, and use the ring finger to close the left nostril.
4. Exhale through the right nostril for 10 counts, keeping the respiration rate slow, deep and silent.
Then, inhale through the right nostril for 5 counts.
5. Exhale 5 rounds of practice or for 3 to 5 minutes, making sure that no sound is produced as the air passes through the nostrils.

1. Improves focus and concentration by calming and centering the mind. The right and left hemispheres are balanced.
2. Improves immunological function.
3. Controls high blood pressure.
4. Offers enough oxygen for each of our body’s cells to function.
5. Eliminates waste products from the body, such as carbon dioxide and other poisonous gases, so they are no longer retained in the bloodstream.

Cautions to be taken while practicing Nadi Shodhan Pranayama (Alternate Nostril Breathing Technique)

1. Do not force the breathing, and keep the flow gentle and natural. Do not breathe from the mouth or make any sound while breathing.
2. Do not use the Ujjayi breath.'
3. Place the fingers very lightly on the forehead and nose. There is no need to apply any pressure.

33. The Johnson-Metheny Test Battery was developed as a refined version of the Johnson Educability Test. The Johnson battery, which has ten tasks, was designed to assess the capacity of neuromuscular skills. Methney examined the test in 1938 and removed six items. The test battery consists of the following four motor stunts:
(a) Front Roll
(b) Back Roll
(c) Jumping Half-Turns
(d) Jumping Full- Turns
The lads are to execute four feats, while the girls are to perform three stunts.
Test Area: Mat area length is 15 feet and it is 2 feet wide. The 15 feet length divided in to ten sections for 18” each. The width of transverse line is ¾” and 3” alternatively. Centre of lines remains 18” apart.
Another ¾” wide line is marked lengthwise in the middle of the mat area.

Procedure:

1. Front Roll: Ignoring the long middle dividing line, the subject is instructed to begin outside the marked area and do two front rolls, one up to 7.5’ i.e. 3” wide centre line and the second in the other half of 7.5’
The subject must carry out the rolls without exceeding the preset boundaries or going over them.
Scoring: There is a maximum of 10 points and each right roll is worth 5 points. For each roll, there are deductions of two points for crossing the side line, the right or left, one point for crossing the end limit, and a full five points for failing to perform a true front roll.
2. Back Roll: Both in terms of performance and scoring, the test is comparable to front roll. The subject is to start outside the marked chart area and is to perform two back rolls in the 2 feet lane area, one up to first half and the second back roll in the second half.
3. Jumping Half Turns: The subject is asked to start with feet on first 3” line, jump with both feet to second 3” wide line, executing a half turn either right or left; jump to third 3” line executing half turn in opposite direction to first half-turn and then to 4th and 5th 3” wide lines executing half turns, right or left alternatively.
Scoring: Four jumps performed flawlessly earn ten points. When the subject either fails to land with both feet on the 3” line, turns the wrong way, or does both, just two points are subtracted for each incorrect jump.

34. The various strategies to enhance exercise adherence are:

1. Goal setting: A moderate bout of acute exercise (20-30 min) is considered to be beneficial for improving positive psychological effects of exercise. The goal setting should be SMART – Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, Time based.
2. Adding variety to exercise: Lack of new exercise options might cause boredom and dropout. Without sacrificing the therapeutic advantages, boredom can be combated by including a range of exercises and movements that address the same physical concerns.
3. Enhancing social support: This involves engaging friends or family members who can encourage positive involvement in sports, exercise, and physical activity since social connection can drive goal achievement and lead to favourable outcomes.
4. Reinforcement Interventions: Approaches that include both positive and negative reinforcement have been suggested to improve exercise adherence. Use of incentives and rewards for appreciating attendance and participation or awarding with badges have been proved effective in maintaining exercise behaviour among participants as well as motivation from many to initiate and engage in physical activity.
5. Intensity: Varying the intensity of workouts can prevent monotony. Some days can be more focused on high-intensity workouts, while others can be low intensity or focused on recovery.

OR

Interval training method is a training of heart, through endurance training. It is also called terrace training. Dr. Woldemar and Gerschler, introduced this training method in 1930. In this method athlete use to run 400 m race 10 to 20 times daily instead of running 10 or 20 miles daily. Then, this training
method came to be known as interval training method. Infact, this training method is based upon “effort and recovery” principle. During interval training, recovery time is given to the athlete after each speedy workout. Recovery period can be adjusted according to the efficiency of athlete. For an athlete of 400 m race following example can be applicable for his training.

1. 400 m race with 80% race.
2. Walking or jogging until his heart rate comes down to 120 to 140 approximately.