Oswal Practice Papers CBSE Class 10 Social Science Solutions (Practice Paper - 9)
- (c) 1915
- (d) Bahujan Samaj Party
- (c) Subhash Chandra Bose
- (a) Wrote on the caste system of India
- (a) Rabi
- (b) A person who believes in equal rights and opportunities for women and men.
- (c) A-IV, B-III, C-I, D-II
- (c) Principle of individual dignity has legal force in non-democratic regimes.
- (d) Bahujan Samaj Party
- (d) 1, 2 and 3
- (b) Unification of Italy – 1859-1870
- (b) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
- (c) Several parties competing to win elections and form the government.
- (a) Primary Sector
- (d) All of these
- (c) Groundnut, Linseed, Gram, Sesamum
- (a) Planning Commission
- (b) Terms of credit
- (d) Sri Lanka
- (a) Only I
21. The following organisations were established by them to protect their business interests:
(i) The Indian Industrial and Commercial Congress in 1920
(ii) The Federation of Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) in 1927
22. (A) The two roles of the Reserve Bank of India are:
(i) The RBI issues currency notes in India on the behalf of the central government.
(ii) It regulates the cash balances of the banks and regulates their formal operations as well.
(B) People also have the provision to withdraw the money as and when they require it. Since the deposits in the bank accounts can be withdrawn on demand, these deposits are called demand deposits.
|The influence of state party is confined to one or more states.
|The national parties have influence all over the country.
|The state parties are interested in promoting the interests of only their state/states.
|The national parties are interested in promoting the interests of the entire country and help in promoting international issues.
|The state parties seek autonomy of their state/states.
|The national parties are interested in integrating the entire country and in promoting the interests all of state.
24. (i) Shillong has been able to deal with the problem of acute shortage of water by setting up Bamboo drip irrigation systems and Roof top rain water harvesting.
(ii) This helped Shillong meet its total water requirement of each household.
25. Resources in our country are not evenly distributed. For example:
(i) Arunachal Pradesh has abundance of water resource but lacks in infrastructure. On the other hand, Rajasthan is gifted with solar and wind energy, but lacks in water resources.
(ii) Most of north-east states are rich in natural vegetation, but lack in fertile soil.
(iii) Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh are rich in minerals and coal deposits but lack in industrialisation.
26. (A) Africa attracted Europeans for several reasons. These reasons are enumerated as follows:
(i) Europeans were attracted towards Africa due to its vast minerals and land resources.
(ii) Crop production and plantation opportunities in Africa also attracted them.
(iii) Poor military resistance power of Africa developed an ideal opportunity for Europeans to conquer areas there.
(B) There are many instances of cultural exchange related to food. Some are as follows:
(i) Noodles travelled west from China to become Spaghetti in far west. It is believed that Arab traders took Pasta to the fifth century Sicily.
(ii) Many common foods like potatoes, soya, groundnuts, maize, tomatoes, chillies and sweet potatoes were unheard of in the past. These foods were introduced in Asia and Europe after Christopher Columbus discovered America or the New World.
(iii) The new crops could make the difference between life and death. The poor people of Europe began to eat better and live longer and healthier with the introduction of humble potatoes.
27. Judiciary plays an important role in ensuring the implementation of various laws and procedure:
(i) The Supreme Court of India has the exclusive authority of settling disputes between the government of India and one or more states or between two states.
(ii) The High Court stands at the head of state’s judicial administrations.
(iii) The Union Territories come under the jurisdiction of different State High Courts.
28. The Reserve bank of India supervises the Banking system due to the following reasons:
(i) The RBI monitors that the banks maintain a minimum cash balance.
(ii) The RBI ensures that the banks give loan not just to the profit making businessmen and traders but also to small cultivators, small scale industries and small borrowers.
(iii) Banks have to submit the information to the RBI on how much they are lending, to whom, at what interest rates etc.
29. The tertiary sector in India has been growing rapidly for a number of reasons:
(i) The development of agriculture and industry leads to the development of services such as trade, transport, storage etc. The greater the development of the primary and secondary sectors the more would be the demand for such services.
(ii) As income levels rise, certain sections of people start demanding more services, such as eating out, tourism, shopping, private hospitals; private schools, professional training etc. This change was quite sharp in cities, especially in big cities.
(iii) Over the past decade, services, such as those based on information and communication technology and software export, have created a boom for call centres.
(iv) The government policy of privatisation has also led to the growth of this sector. The liberalisation of the financial environment has boosted the growth in the financial sector.
30. (A) France was a full-fledged territorial state in 1789 under the rule of an absolute monarchy. The estate general, renamed as General Assembly, became an elected body.
(i) The revolution proclaimed that it was the people who would henceforth constitute the nation and shape its destiny. A new French flag, the Tricolour, was chosen to replace the former royal standard.
(ii) A centralised administrative system was put in place, and it formulated uniform laws for all citizens within its territory. Internal customs duties and dues were abolished and a uniform system of weights and measures was adopted.
(iii) Regional dialects were discouraged and French, as it was spoken and written in Paris, became the common language of the nation.
(iv) The revolutionaries further declared that it was the mission and the destiny of the French nation to help other people of Europe to become independent nations.
(v) With the outbreak of revolutionary wars, the French armies began to carry the idea of nationalism abroad.
Thus, France became a nation-state, and the world got a clear expression of nationalism through the French revolution.
(B) In the 1830s, the employment rate in the economy was lower. People migrated from rural areas to urban areas in search of jobs. Small producers faced stiff competition due to imported cheap machines which were produced in England, where industries were much more advanced. Textile industry faced a major set-back as the production used to be carried out in small workshops or homes. The regions of Europe where the aristocracy was still prevalent had peasants who struggled from burden of feudal dues and obligations. The economy suffered from widespread poverty on account of price inflation and bad harvest season.
31. (A) A political party is a group of people who come together to contest elections and hold power in the government. Political parties take some policies and programmes for society intending to promote the collective good.
Three components of a political party are:
(i) The Leaders: Every political party has some prominent leaders who formulate policies and programmes of the party and choose candidates for contesting elections.
(ii) The Active Members: They are involved in different committees of the party and participate directly in their activity.
(iii) The Followers: They believe in the party’s ideology and support the party by casting their votes in favour of the party at the time of the election.
(B) Some of the recent efforts and suggestions in India to reform political parties and its leaders are:
(i) The constitution was amended to prevent elected MLAs and MPs from changing parties.
(ii) If an MLA or MP changes parties, he or she will lose the seat in the legislature. This new law has helped bring defection down.
(iii) The Supreme Court passed an order to reduce the influence of money and criminals. It is mandatory for every candidate who contests elections to file an affidavit giving details of his property and
criminal cases pending against him.
(iv) The new system has made a lot of information available to the public about every candidate contesting the elections.
(v) The Election Commission passed an order making it necessary for political parties to hold their organisational elections and file their income tax returns.
32. (A) Cotton textile industry was concentrated in the cotton growing belt in the early years because:
(i) Availability of raw cotton: Good quality raw cotton was easily available in the states of Maharashtra and Gujarat.
(ii) Moist climate: The moist and humid climate helped in the growth of cotton.
(iii) Transport: A good network of roads and railways helped in procuring raw materials and distribution of finished products.
(iv) Port facilities: The nearness to Mumbai port helped in the export of finished cotton products.
(v) Cheap labour: Cheap labour was abundantly available in these states.
(B) Industries pollute the environment by polluting air, water and land. They also cause noise pollution.
They have increased pollution and resulted in a degraded environment. The pollution created by industries can be classified as:
(i) Land pollution: It is caused by dumping of non-biodegradable solid waste from industries in landfill sites.
(ii) Air pollution: Industries cause air pollution by the emission of gases from industrial complexes and power generation units. Leakage of poisonous gases and chemicals from chemical industries and burning of fossil fuels in big and small factories also leads to air pollution.
(iii) Water pollution: It is caused when industrial effluents both organic and inorganic are discharged into rivers or other water bodies. Some other common pollutants of the water pollution are fertilisers, pesticides, dyes, soaps, etc.
(iv) Noise pollution: Undesirable noise pollution from industries like construction, running of generators to generate power, electrical drill, etc., is responsible for disturbing our environment.
(v) Thermal pollution: It occurs when hot water from factories and thermal plants is drained into rivers and ponds before cooling.
33. (A) Income is generally considered to be an important factor on which the development of a country’s people depends. This is based on the understanding that more income results into more of all those
things that the human beings need. But income is not the only factor on which the development and welfare of the people depends.
Following are some of the factors:
(i) Equality of Income: An important factor which is must for development is the equality of income. A country cannot be considered developed if only a section of the society enjoys all the benefits while
the other section suffers poverty.
(ii) Health facilities: A person’s health is dependent upon the quality of food and the medical facilities available in the country. So, the country’s medical system and food distribution need to be very strong and effective so that the benefits of these facilities must reach to the last person.
(iii) Education: Education enhances the understanding of the world around a person. Knowledge makes the discovery of new ideas, items and technology possible which makes the lives of the people easier.
(iv) Clean Environment: Clean environment is equally important for people as health is. The absence of clean environment results into poor health which again is worse for the people of any county.
(v) Security: A person can feel or sense development only when he has the sense of security, internal as well as external.
(B) The concept of sustainable development or sustainability underlines the importance of these words—“We have not inherited the world from our forefathers—we have borrowed it from our children.” So, this concept tells us that the present generation must utilise all the resources in such a judicious manner that the future generation may also enjoy the benefits of these resources in the same manner as the present generation is enjoying today. Following are certain steps which can be taken to achieve sustainable development:
(i) Judicious Use of Natural Resources: The very first step that can be taken is the judicious use of the natural resources. Natural resources are limited. So they must be utilised by keeping economic
priorities in mind and in such a manner which may provide the maximum benefits to the people.
(ii) Penalty for Wastage: Another step that can be taken to stop the wastage of natural resources is to penalise people responsible for wastage of natural resources. For this purpose government must frame necessary policies and implement them so that wastage of at least non-renewable resources may be stopped.
(iii) Alternative Resources: Efforts must be made to generate alternatives of the natural resources. Though it is very difficult but the technology has made it possible to generate alternative resources.
But such technologies must be made commonly available for their maximum use.
34.1 Gutenberg was a German inventor, printer and goldsmith who invented the first-known printing press in the 1430s.
34.2 Gutenberg acquired the skills of polishing stones, and also attained expertise in the creation of lead moulds used for making trinkets. He became a master goldsmith and designed several jewels.
34.3 Gutenberg led to the invention of the printing press. In his design, he made the use of the casting metal types for the letters of the alphabet. The first book which was printed by the use of this technology was
the Bible. There were more than 180 copies that got printed by this technique.
35.1 This balance is disturbed due to overgrazing in states like Gujarat, Rajasthan and Maharashtra.
35.2 Soil conservation refers to the efforts made to prevent soil from getting eroded.
35.3 Gully erosion occurs when the running water cuts through the clayey soils and makes deep channels as gullies.
Sheet erosion occurs when the top soil gets eroded from very large areas due to the running water.
36.1 In Belgium, the leaders amended the constitution four times in order to enable everyone to live together within the same country, whereas in Sri Lanka, the Sinhala community adopted majoritarian measures to establish its supremacy over the Sri Lankan Tamils.
36.2 Prudential Reason: Power sharing ensures stability of political order.
Moral Reason: A democratic rule involves sharing power with those affected by its exercise, and who have to live with its effects.
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