Current Affairs

List of Freedom Fighters of India from 1857-1947, Names and their Contribution

freedom fighters of india

India’s struggle for independence from British colonial control was characterised by the persistent commitment, and selfless sacrifices of innumerable valiant people and was not easy at all. These freedom fighters were essential in determining the course of a nation, from the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857 until the last push for independence in 1947. The journey of freedom was a long one and a lot of freedom fighters emerged and came together to achieve the dream that every single Indian was watching. In this blog, we are going to explore some notable freedom fighters of India their lives, contributions, and enduring legacies during this crucial era in Indian history and shaped the nation that we are living and breathing in today.

List of Freedom Fighters of India and Their Contributions

Freedom Fighters Name 
Date of BirthContributions 
Mahatma GandhiOctober 2, 1869• Initiated nonviolent resistance against the colonizers.
• Ignited widespread civil disobedience, symbolizing the power of collective action.
• Efforts to bridge communal differences and established Hindu-Muslim unity. 
Jawaharlal NehruNovember 14, 1889• He championed a neutral foreign policy, shaping the Nonaligned Movement and fostering global peace.
• Emphasised education and is the architect of Modern India.
• Supported Mahatma Gandhi in important national movements.
Bhagat Singh September 28, 1907• Challenged the British rule fearlessly and worked as an inspiration for others.
• Sacrificed his life at a very young age for the nation.
Subhas Chandra BoseJanuary 23, 1897• Formed the Indian National Army and infused the soldiers with courage.
• Formed the Azad Hind Government.
• Creation of Forward Bloc for progressive political and social justice. 
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel October 31, 1875• Adapted diplomacy that integrated more than 560 princely states.
• Came up with Agrarian reform, focused on the development of rural India. 
Rani LakshmibaiNovember 19, 1828• Fought against British rule during the 1857 uprising and is a symbol of resistance and courage. 
Bal Gangadhar TilakJuly 23, 1856• Initiated the Swadeshi Movement encouraging the use of indigenous products. 
• Focused on self-sufficiency.
• Helps in the formulation of educational reforms. 
Sarojini NaiduFebruary 13, 1879• Advocated for women’s rights in different fields and encouraged women’s participation in the freedom movement.
• Represented India at the global level with her diplomatic skills.
Lala Lajpat RaiJanuary 28, 1865• Started Punjab Kesari and exposed the British government with his journalistic skills.
• Led Anti-Simon Commission protest.
• Promoted the importance of education. 
Chandrashekhar Azad July 23, 1906• He co-founded HSRA, inspiring young revolutionaries to fight for independence.
• Is a symbol of courage and an icon for youth. 
Rajendra PrasadDecember 3, 1884Served as the first president of India and contributed to a more inclusive post-independence India.
Maulana Abul Kalam AzadNovember 11, 1888• Served as the first education minister of Independent India and focused on educational reforms.
• Contributed to the space domain of the nation. 
Bipin Chandra Pal November 7, 1858• Leader of an extremist faction in the INC.
• Promoted the Swadeshi movement and helped in building a self-reliant nation. 
Dadabhai NaorojiSeptember 4, 1825• Focused on national representation and became the first Indian MP in the British parliament.
• Exposed the economic exploitation of the nation by the hands of colonizers. 
Gopal Krishna GokhaleMay 9, 1866• Was a political mentor and nurtured a generation of leaders, including Gandhi and Nehru, shaping their ideals and strategies.
Annie BesantOctober 1, 1847• She led the Home Rule Movement, mobilizing Indians for self-rule and laying the groundwork for future struggles.
C. RajagopalachariDecember 10, 1878• Advocated for nonviolence and civil disobedience.
• Served as India’s last governor-general and promoted rural development.
Sardar Udham SinghDecember 26, 1899• Sought justice for the Jallianwala Bagh massacre victims, assassinating Michael O’Dwyer, the former Lieutenant Governor of Punjab.
Matangini HazraOctober 19, 1870• She participated in the Salt Satyagraha and other protests that highlighted the power of nonviolent resistance in challenging British rule.
Alluri Sitarama RajuJuly 4, 1897• Led a tribal uprising against the British government and highlighted indigenous communities.
• Used the tactics of Gorilla Warfare to fight for independence. 
Kanaklata BaruaDecember 22, 1924• She participated in the Quit India Movement and died for the cause during a procession, becoming a symbol of youth sacrifice.
• Also focused on women’s empowerment. 
Durga Devi VohraDecember 29, 1917• She was known as the ‘Agni of India’ and fought with courage against the British government.
Ganesh Shankar VidyarthiOctober 26, 1890• Known for his journalistic brilliance and started a newspaper Pratap and exposed the British government. 
Bina Das November 5, 1911• She is known for her attempt to assassinate the Bengal Governor Stanley Jackson highlighted her commitment to the cause and resistance against British rule.
Batukeshwar DuttNovember 18, 1910• He is known for his participation in the Kakori conspiracy showcasing his commitment to the revolutionary cause against British rule.

Top 10 Freedom Fighters of India 

top 10 freedom fighters of india

India is a land of brave heroes and our nation was able to get independence because of the contribution of such brave heroes. It took the lives and sacrifices of so many freedom fighters that it is not possible to mention the name of every brave heart but mentioned below is the list of the top 10 freedom fighters of India. 

1. Mangal Pandey (1827-1857):

Mangal Pandey, an Indian soldier in the British Indian Army, became a symbol of early resistance against colonial oppression. When he refused to use cartridges that were allegedly smeared with animal fat in 1857, he displayed defiance and helped spark the Indian Rebellion of that year. Because of his bravery, Mangal Pandey was put to death, and his martyrdom encouraged others to oppose British tyranny. His memory serves as a constant reminder that any person’s choices can have a significant impact on history, which in turn affected the larger fight for India’s eventual independence.

2. Dadabhai Naoroji (1825-1917):

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, a well-known Indian nationalist leader named Dadabhai Naoroji pushed for Indian representation in the British Parliament. Through his “Drain of Wealth” argument, he brought attention to the British economic exploitation of India. Naoroji was a key figure in addressing the aspirations of Indians living under colonial authority because he was a founding member of the Indian National Congress. He was a driving force behind the drive for self-governance thanks to his commitment to social and political reform and his economic ideas, which motivated generations of Indians to seek justice, equality, and autonomy.

3. Bal Gangadhar Tilak (1856-1920):

Bal Gangadhar Tilak, a prominent Indian nationalist and social reformer, was a driving force in India’s struggle for independence. Known as the “Lokmanya,” he emphasized the importance of self-reliance and the Swadeshi movement. Tilak’s call for “Swaraj is my birthright” galvanized the masses, advocating for self-governance within the British framework. He played a pivotal role in shaping the Indian National Congress and used newspapers as a tool to rally public support. Tilak’s commitment to cultural revival, education, and political change inspired Indians to resist colonial rule and fostered a sense of national identity that remains influential to this day.

4. Lala Lajpat Rai (1865-1928):

Another very important name in the freedom struggle was Lala Lajpat Rai. He was popularly known as the “Lion of Punjab,” and was a fearless Indian freedom fighter who strongly opposed British rule. He championed the cause of education, social reform, and political rights for Indians. Lajpat Rai played a pivotal role in various movements, including the Swadeshi movement and protests against repressive British policies. His unwavering dedication led to his imprisonment and physical assault by the police, which ultimately led to his untimely death. Rai’s legacy is one of courage, resilience, and a fierce determination to see India free from colonial shackles, inspiring generations to stand up for justice and equality. He is one of te most important freedom fighters of India. 

5. Mahatma Gandhi (1869-1948):

One of the most celebrated freedom fighters of our nation is Mahatma Gandhi because he showed the world a path of non-violence. Known as the Father of the Nation, he led India’s nonviolent struggle for independence from British colonial rule. Through his philosophy of Satyagraha, he promoted civil disobedience and passive resistance to challenge injustice. Gandhi’s leadership in movements like the Salt March and Quit India demonstrated the power of peaceful protest. His ascetic lifestyle, unwavering principles, and emphasis on truth and ahimsa (nonviolence) inspired millions globally. Gandhi’s legacy transcends borders, advocating not only for India’s freedom but for human rights, equality, and social change. His influence endures as a beacon of hope for those fighting for justice and freedom.

6. Subhas Chandra Bose (1897-1945):

Subhas Chandra Bose, a charismatic leader and patriot, played a transformative role in India’s fight for freedom. Known as Netaji, he was a driving force behind the Indian National Army (INA), which sought to liberate India from British rule with the support of Japan during World War II. Bose’s unwavering determination, vision for a liberated India, and advocacy for armed struggle against colonialism inspired countless individuals. His mysterious disappearance after the war added to his mystique, making him a symbol of undying commitment to freedom. Bose’s legacy endures, reminding us of the sacrifices made for India’s independence and the pursuit of justice.

7. Bhagat Singh (1907-1931):

It would be like a crime to talk about freedom fighters of India and not mention the name of revolutionary hero Bhagat Singh. He bravely resisted British colonial rule. His dedication to India’s independence was demonstrated by his participation in demonstrations against oppressive policies like the Simon Commission. Singh demonstrated his tenacity in a dramatic demonstration in the Central Legislative Assembly where he threw non-lethal bombs and risked being arrested. He supported armed resistance to imperialism and, at the young age of 23, gave his life in service of that belief. Generations have been inspired by Singh’s patriotism, tenacity, and sacrifice, which stands for the unbreakable spirit of resistance and the unflinching quest for independence in India’s struggle against oppression.

8. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel (1875-1950):

Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, the “Iron Man of India,” played a pivotal role in India’s unification post-independence. His adept diplomacy and leadership led to the integration of princely states, forming the modern Indian state. As the first Deputy Prime Minister and Home Minister, Patel’s administrative skills streamlined the nation-building process. His commitment to unity, social justice, and strong governance left an indelible mark. His legacy continues to inspire leaders worldwide, highlighting the importance of consensus, determination, and statesmanship in shaping a diverse and united nation.

9.Jawaharlal Nehru (1889-1964):

The first Prime Minister of India Jawaharlal Nehru was a visionary leader and the designer of contemporary India. His dedication to social justice, democracy, and secularism shaped the country’s post-independence course. The future of India was shaped by “Chacha Nehru,” who was well-recognised for emphasising education and child care. The non-alignment foreign policy of Nehru contributed to India’s rise to prominence. His dedication was demonstrated by his leadership throughout pivotal moments like the Sino-Indian War. His contributions to democracy, the promotion of equality, and the advancement of science and education will live on in his legacy. Leaders and residents are still motivated by Nehru’s goals, which uphold the principles of inclusivity, progress, and togetherness.

10.Chandrasekhar Azad (1906-1931):

In India’s struggle for independence, the fearless revolutionary Chandrasekhar Azad was crucial. He supported armed opposition to British rule as a leading member of the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association. His audacious deeds, such as the Kakori Train Robbery, demonstrated his dedication to the cause. Azad was given the name “Azad,” which means “free,” for his tenacity and defiance. He chose death over capture and was killed by the police after a bloody struggle. Generations have been motivated by Azad’s unflinching resolve and selfless sacrifice to oppose injustice for the sake of a just and free India.

Early Freedom Fighters

early freedom fighters names

The fight against colonizers didn’t start a short time before getting independence it started decades before that. Many heroes sacrificed their lives and were left unnoticed. Here is a list of some of the early freedom fighters of India. 

1. Raja Rammohan Roy (1772-1833):

In colonial India, Raja Ram Mohan Roy (1772–1833) was a trailblazing intellectual giant and social reformer. He fervently supported advancements in women’s rights, modern education, and the elimination of backward customs like Sati (widow burning). Through Roy’s efforts, the Brahmo Samaj, a socioreligious reform movement, was founded. His unwavering support for reason, a scientific mindset, and social fairness created the foundation for ensuing reform movements. The lasting impact of Roy’s progressive ideals on Indian society’s advancement towards social harmony, equality, and education may be seen in the country’s cultural heritage. He is referred to with justification as the “Father of the Bengal Renaissance.”

2. Rani Lakshmibai of Jhansi (1828-1858): 

Also known as the Rani of Jhansi, Rani Lakshmibai was a valiant leader in the Indian Rebellion of 1857 against British colonial rule. She fiercely resisted the British annexation of her kingdom, leading her troops in battle with remarkable courage. Lakshmibai’s legacy of bravery and determination has made her an iconic symbol of women’s empowerment and Indian resistance. Her sacrifice continues to inspire generations, reminding them of the unyielding spirit of those who fought for India’s freedom and dignity.

3. Madam Cama (1861-1936): 

Madam Bhikaji Cama was a prominent freedom fighter who played a vital role in India’s independence movement abroad. She designed the first Indian national flag and fervently advocated for India’s self-rule on international platforms. Her unwavering commitment to India’s cause and her efforts to gain global support remains a testament to her dedication to the nation’s freedom.

4. Bipin Chandra Pal (1858-1932): 

Another very prominent female in the freedom struggle was Bipin Chandra Pal. She was one of the three members of the “Lal-Bal-Pal” triad and a charismatic leader in India’s fight for independence. To counter British economic exploitation, he fervently promoted swadeshi (local production) and self-reliance. Pal’s ferocious speeches and writings, which emphasised cultural pride and the necessity for independence, inspired thousands to rebel against colonial oppression. Generations were motivated to actively join in the liberation movement by his views, which linked nationalism with social and economic transformation. Pal’s legacy highlights his contribution to building a spirit of self-determination, encouraging local businesses, and forming India’s nationalist consciousness.

5. Aurobindo Ghosh (1872-1950): 

A notable Indian nationalist leader and spiritual philosopher, Aurobindo Ghosh lived from 1872 to 1950. He pursued his spiritual interests while advocating for India’s independence. Before he turned to spiritual philosophy, Ghosh encouraged the revolutionary cause with his writings and involvement. People who are trying to strike a balance between social activism and inner development continue to be influenced by his teachings and worldview.

Nationalist Movements and Leaders

Every leader of the freedom struggle was putting in their best efforts for the independence of the nation. For the same reason a lot of movements were stared started one after another. Some of the most important and impactful movements led by the freedom fighters of India are mentioned below:

  • Swadeshi Movement: Launched in response to the Partition of Bengal in 1905, this movement aimed to promote Indian industries. Leaders like Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal, and Lala Lajpat Rai were instrumental.
  • Non-Cooperation Movement: Led by Mahatma Gandhi, this movement (1920-1922) advocated for nonviolent resistance against British rule and non-cooperation with colonial institutions.
  • Civil Disobedience Movement: Gandhi led this movement (1930-1934) against the salt tax and other unjust laws. The Dandi March became an iconic symbol of defiance.
  • Khilafat Movement: Led by Mahatma Gandhi and Ali Brothers, this movement aimed to support the Ottoman Empire and advocate for Indian Muslim rights.
  • Quit India Movement: Launched in 1942, this movement demanded an end to British rule. Leaders like Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru, and others were imprisoned during this time.

Revolutionary Fighters

revolutionary indian freedom fighters names

Every freedom fighter was fighting with their best might to so that nation can get freedom but some freedom fighters came with a whole new spirit and reveloutionazied the whole fight. Some of the revolutionary freedom fighters of India are mentioned below.

1. Ram Prasad Bismil (1897-1927):

A well-known Indian rebel who strongly resisted British colonial rule was Ram Prasad Bismil. He was a key figure in the daring Kakori Train Robbery of 1925, which raised money for the liberation cause. Bismil was a talented poet, and many people were moved by his works of patriotism. He established the Hindustan Republican Association, which promoted armed resistance, as a result of his steadfast commitment to free India from British rule. Even in the face of hardship, Bismil’s dedication to the cause persisted, and his execution by the British in 1927 made him a lasting example of bravery and selflessness in the fight for India’s freedom.

2.Rajguru (1908-1931) and Sukhdev (1907-1931):

Shivaram Rajguru (1908-1931) and Sukhdev Thapar (1907-1931) were valiant revolutionaries who stood alongside Bhagat Singh in India’s struggle against British colonial rule. Their involvement in the Lahore Conspiracy Case, including the assassination of British officer James Scott, showcased their unwavering commitment to the cause. Rajguru’s fearless determination and Sukhdev’s strategic acumen complemented Singh’s leadership. Despite their youth, their sacrifices and readiness to face the gallows alongside Bhagat Singh demonstrated their resolute spirit. Their lives and sacrifices serve as a poignant reminder of the sacrifices made by the younger generation for India’s freedom and inspire the pursuit of justice.

3. Ashfaqulla Khan (1900-1927):

Ashfaqulla Khan, a brave rebel who lived from 1900 to 1927, made a vital contribution to India’s struggle against British colonial control. He took part in the Kakori Conspiracy against the British government as a major member of the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association. Khan’s strong participation in revolutionary actions demonstrated his commitment to the freedom cause. Despite being young when he was arrested, tried, and ultimately put to death, his dedication to freedom and readiness to pay the ultimate sacrifice had a lasting impact on India’s quest for independence. His legacy is still a source of resistance and patriotism today.

4. Birsa Munda (1875-1900): 

Tribal leader and independence warrior Birsa Munda (1875–1900) led the Millenarian movement in Jharkhand, India, against British oppression and exploitation of the land. He sought to defend their culture and reestablish tribal rights. The indigenous populace was motivated to oppose colonial control and fight for its rights by Munda’s efforts. His legacy is still important in the fight for justice and the history of tribal empowerment.

5. Udham Singh (1899-1940): 

Another very important name in the list of freedom fighters of India is Udham Singh. He was a patriot who sought vengeance for the Jallianwala Bagh massacre. In 1940, he assassinated Michael O’Dwyer, the former Lieutenant Governor of Punjab, to avenge the innocent lives lost. Singh’s act of retribution highlighted the deep-seated anger against British oppression and atrocities. He was subsequently hanged for his actions. Singh’s resolute pursuit of justice serves as a reminder of the pain caused by colonial brutality and the lengths some were willing to go to for retribution.

Women Freedom Fighters of India

women freedom fighters of india

Women played an equally important role in the freedom of India and without them, the dream of independence would have been a far cry. So, have a look at some of the most prominent women freedom fighters of India. 

1. Sarojini Naidu (1879-1949):

Sarojini Naidu, the Nightingale of India, was a remarkable poet, freedom fighter, and social activist. Her eloquent verses reflected her patriotism and advocacy for India’s independence. Naidu’s involvement in the Indian National Congress and her active participation in various freedom movements showcased her dedication to the cause. She was the first Indian woman to become the President of the Indian National Congress and the first woman to serve as a state governor. Naidu’s legacy continues to inspire women’s empowerment, artistic expression, and social change, underscoring the vital role of literature and activism in shaping India’s journey to freedom.

2. Kasturba Gandhi (1869-1944): 

Kasturba Gandhi, Mahatma Gandhi’s faithful partner, was crucial in the fight for India’s independence. She showed her commitment to peaceful resistance through her unflinching support for her husband’s principles and her active involvement in several movements, including the Salt March. Kasturba’s support for equal rights for women and her work to educate rural women demonstrated her social conscience. She remained a symbol of simplicity and resiliency despite difficulties. Women played a crucial part in India’s struggle for independence, and Kasturba’s life serves as an inspiration for future generations by demonstrating the power of tenacity and selflessness in the pursuit of justice and equality.

3. Bhikaji Cama (1861-1936): 

Bhikaji Cama was a pioneering freedom fighter and a prominent figure in India’s struggle for independence. She designed the first version of the Indian national flag and was a fervent advocate for India’s self-rule on the international stage. Cama’s contributions and activism continue to inspire the spirit of patriotism and the fight for sovereignty.

4. Annie Besant (1847-1933):

A crucial part of the Indian independence movement was performed by Annie Besant, a British socialist and freedom fighter. She promoted Indian nationalism while pushing for independence and social change. Besant worked tirelessly to advance Indian culture, workers’ rights, and education. To promote unity, she partnered with prominent Indian figures like Tilak and Gandhi. The legacy of Besant emphasises the international scope of India’s liberation movement and serves as a reminder of the cooperation between Indian and foreign leaders in the pursuit of justice and self-determination.

5. Aruna Asaf Ali (1909-1996):

Aruna Asaf Ali, known as the “Grand Old Lady” of the Indian Independence Movement, was a prominent freedom fighter. She played a vital role in the Quit India Movement, leading protests and demonstrating against British rule. Aruna’s courage during the 1942 Bombay Mutiny and her contributions to the nonviolent struggle underscores her dedication to India’s freedom. Her actions and leadership continue to inspire individuals to stand up against oppression and injustice, embodying the spirit of resilience and sacrifice.

Quit India Movement and Final Push

It would not be wrong to say that the Quit India movement was one of the most important movements of the whole freedom struggle and it worked as a final push for the years of hard work. The Quit India Movement, also known as the August Movement, was a significant turning point in India’s struggle for independence. Launched by one of the most important freedom fighters of India, Mahatma Gandhi on August 8, 1942, it marked the final push towards liberating India from British colonial rule. The movement called for the immediate “Quit India” of British authorities and aimed to achieve this through nonviolent civil disobedience and mass protests. Mass protests, strikes, and acts of civil disobedience erupted, and the British responded with a harsh crackdown, arresting leaders and using force to suppress the movement. Despite the brutal repression, the movement demonstrated the unity, resolve, and courage of the Indian people. It served as a final push and helped Indians realize their aspiration for self-reliance. 

Legacy and Inspiration of Freedom Fighters of India

It’s been decades since we got independence but the bravery and courage that our freedom fighters showed is still celebrated. And it is all because of the legacy and inspiration that they left behind. The collective struggle of all the fighters to fight against colonial oppression is the most important mark of Indian history. The most important thing that it taught all the Indians is the strength of courage. And how courage paved the way for the nation’s liberation, showcasing the power of determination and collective action. Along with that it also flourished the message of unity in diversity as freedom struggle united people across diverse backgrounds, languages, and religions under the common goal of independence. Then comes another very important legacy the legacy of non-violence as Mahatma Gandhi became the torch bearer of non-violent revolution across the nation and spread the message of “Ahimsa Parmo Dharm”. 

The freedom struggle and the freedom fighters of India left a lot more important messages for the upcoming generations like the importance of women’s rights, democratic rights, resilience in adversity and became role models for the youth. It would not be wrong to say that citizens will respect the legacy of our brave heroes for centuries to come. 


India’s independence war produced a long list of freedom fighters of India, and each of them contributed in their special way to the aspiration of a free country. Their bravery, tenacity, and selfless sacrifices made it possible for India to win its independence in 1947. It’s important to keep in mind that the struggle for independence was a team effort, fueled by the commitment of numerous unsung heroes, as we pay tribute to their legacy. Their experiences continue to uplift us and serve as a powerful reminder of India’s unwavering spirit, tenacity, and sense of unity. We as the citizens of India, owe everything to these brave heroes and should be thankful to them for being able to breathe in the open air. We should celebrate the national heroes of India every day. 

FAQs on Freedom Fighters of India

Q1. Who were the prominent freedom fighters of India during the period 1857-1947?

Ans. Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru, Subhas Chandra Bose, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Rani Lakshmibai, Bhagat Singh, Sarojini Naidu, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, and many others were notable freedom fighters during this time and all of them contributed to the freedom of India. 

Q2. What were the major contributions of Mahatma Gandhi to India’s freedom struggle?

Ans. Mahatma Gandhi was the face of the nonviolent resistance movement against British rule. He initiated movements like the Salt March, Non-Cooperation Movement, and Quit India Movement, emphasizing civil disobedience and passive resistance.

Q3. How did women contribute to India’s freedom struggle during this period?

Ans. Women’s role in the freedom struggle was equally significant and women took part in all the movements, protests and campaigns in every way possible. Leaders like Sarojini Naidu, Kasturba Gandhi, and Aruna Asaf Ali were instrumental in inspiring and mobilizing people.

Q4. How did the freedom fighters’ contributions impact India’s eventual independence in 1947?

Ans. Mahatma Gandhi, Nehru’s successor, Subhas Chandra Bose, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Rani Lakshmibai, Bhagat Singh, Sarojini Naidu, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, and many others were notable freedom fighters during this time and all of them contributed to the freedom of India through their protests, sacrifices, and movements.

Q5. How can we honour and remember the contributions of these freedom fighters of India today?

Ans. We should honour and respect our freedom fighters in every way possible because they are the reason we are the reason we live in an independent nation. There are various ways by which we can respect them like by learning about their lives, sharing their stories, and acknowledging their sacrifices. Celebrating national holidays like Independence Day and Republic Day with complete integrity is a way to remember their contributions.

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