Teaching Practices

The Impact of Student-Teacher Ratio on Quality Of Education

Student-Teacher Ratio

When you imagine a classroom, you probably think of a teacher imparting knowledge, dozens of students listening intently, notes scribbled in the margins, and bags and books occupying every available space. However, teachers often fail when trying to get the attention of all students. Is it because he’s a bad teacher? Or are they bad students? Or is it because there are so many students packed into each classroom? The latter is usually closest to the truth. The teacher-to-student ratio is not appropriate. 

When you have many students and few teachers, you have a classic supply and demand problem. On the other hand, if we imagine a classroom with fewer students, we will see how students not only learn, but also feel seen, and their intellectual and developmental needs are met in a personalized and individualized way. I can imagine how it will grow. In most cases, this teacher-student relationship is a key element in creating lifelong learning and development for most children.

Student-Teacher Ratio

Ideal Student-Teacher Ratio

The teacher-student ratio is the ratio of the number of students to each teacher in the classroom. So if there are 20 students in a class,  the teacher-to-student ratio is 20:1. This is not the same as the average class size, although the two statistics are related. 

The student-teacher ratio refers to the workload of the teacher who manages the number of students and the amount of time, energy, correction, and learning they can afford. to a student. When there are more students in the class, the teacher’s attention is divided. So, if there are 30 students in the class, the teacher can give 3.3% of his interest to one child at any time! A teacher’s inability to care and focus on a student affects the student because the ratio of teacher to student is the same as the student’s ability to achieve.

There is no specific number to determine a good student-teacher ratio. The figure differs for each school. It is based on budget, school enrollment, and the number of teachers currently employed.

Student-Teacher Ratio According to RTE

The rule of thumb is that the lower the student-teacher ratio, the better. Some experts believe that a ratio of less than 10:1 is ideal for a typical classroom environment. Some boarding schools believe that this is a less progressive approach, where one-to-one teaching is guaranteed, but teachers are free to change the curriculum and teaching methods according to needs. and student learning styles. 

In India, the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2009 recommends information on teacher-pupil ratio (known as Teacher Ratio and PTR) for primary and secondary schools. Elementary school. In primary and higher grades, the PTR should be 30:1 and 35:1. The Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) framework states that the PTR for secondary school should be 30:1. 

However, the teacher-student ratio in primary school is 24:1 and 27:1, respectively, according to UDISE (Integrated District Education Information System). 

The consensus among all sources and experts is that reducing the teacher-student ratio is a good thing. Some institutions in the country are sometimes unable to do so due to lack of funding and lack of good and qualified teachers, especially in government schools.

Student-Teacher Ratio in India

The student-to-teacher ratio, also known as the student-to-teacher ratio (PTR), is the average number of students per teacher at a given educational level during the school year. 

The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2009 lays down norms and standards regarding pupil-teacher ratio (PTRs), facilities and infrastructure, school work day, teacher work hours, etc. 

The RTE Act of 2009, which came into effect on 1 April 2010, mandates that  schools should maintain pupil-teacher ratios (PTRs) at the following specified ages: 

A. For classes I to V:

i). Two teachers for up to sixty admitted children

ii). Three teachers for 61-90 children

iii). Four teachers for 91-120 children

iv). Five teachers for 121-200 children

v). One Head Teacher, other than the five teachers, if the number of admitted

children exceeds 150; and the PTR (excluding Head Teacher) shall not exceed

forty if the number of admitted children is above 200.

B. For Classes VI to VIII:

i). At least one teacher per class so that there shall be at least one teacher each for

(a) Science and Mathematics;

(b) Social Studies; and

(c) Languages.

ii). At least one teacher for every 35 children;

iii). Where the admission of children is above 100, there shall be

(a) A full-time head teacher and

(b) Part-time instructors for Art Education, Health & Physical Education and Work Education

student teacher ratio in india

Student-Teacher Ratio in Primary Schools in India

Accurate statistics of teachers and students in schools of various levels of education play a vital role in ensuring meaningful and effective teaching and learning in schools. However, maintaining a valid PTR does not guarantee that school communications will run smoothly and meet expectations. Additionally, there is no guarantee that all schools will have enough teachers. 

The implementation of the Right to Education Act in 2009 increased the importance of teacher and student statistics. These rules provide specific provisions for student-teacher ratios at various levels of education. 

Under the law, the ratio of teachers to students is 30:1 for primary schools and 35:1 for primary and secondary schools.

Importance of Correct Student-Teacher Ratio

The student-teacher ratio is one of the most important indicators of student success and participation. Of course, this is not surprising. The less students have to do with each teacher, the more effective they are in teaching a particular discipline. They can also create healthy mentoring relationships and provide knowledge and help in ways that are not possible in larger classrooms.

In addition, a lower ratio will make the work of teachers easier, so that they can focus on quality rather than quantity of teaching and assessment. In small groups, students are more likely to express their ideas, ask questions, and express their needs. This arrangement also targets students who have difficulty learning certain subjects. Rather than being left behind in larger classrooms or classrooms with higher teacher-student ratios, students benefit from teachers who can focus and provide more personal help. 

These benefits also apply to high-achieving students who need additional challenges to reach their goals. With a low student-teacher ratio, teachers are well positioned to address this situation, providing additional resources to students and helping them develop their potential. It also gives teachers more scope to talk to parents about these areas of strength and to consider the next steps. 

As the saying goes, the proof is in the pudding. Lower student and teacher scores have been shown to have negative consequences, with indirect effects including: 

  • Better test scores 
  • Fewer children drop out of school 
  • higher graduation rates


It is believed that a smaller student-to-teacher ratio allows teachers to give individual attention to students, thereby increasing student achievement. This will improve students’ grasp and understanding of the subject. Therefore, student and teacher engagement is critical to long-term, academic success. Increasing PTR cannot be done by imparting teacher quality but must be achieved by training and appointing quality teachers.


Q1. What is the teacher-student ratio according to RTE?

Ans According to the RTE Act of 2009, there is a 30:1 student-to-teacher ratio. If more than 30 students are enrolled, the teacher-student ratio is 60:2. Therefore, three teachers are hired for more than 60 students.

Q2. What is the student ratio in primary school?

Ans – The ratio of teachers to students is 30:1 for primary schools and 35:1 for primary and secondary schools.

Q3. Why is the student-teacher ratio important?

Ans – The student-teacher ratio reflects the workload of the teacher and his ability to work and care for the students. Many students and teachers believe that the less credit, the better the learning and teaching.

Q4. Under what act is the student-teacher ratio managed?

Ans – Student-teacher ratio came under the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009.

Q5. What is the main purpose of implementing the RTE Act 2009?

The Indian Parliament passed the Right to Education Act in 2009 to address the deterioration of the education system and poor learning outcomes. The bill aims to provide free and compulsory primary education to children aged 6  to 14 years.

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