Oswal 61 Sample Question Papers ICSE Class 9 Geography Solutions
- (A) (i) (a) The geographical grid is the network of latitudes and longitude used for locating any place accurately over a map or globe.
- (b) The boundary of torrid zone has been demarcated by tropic of cancer (23.5° N) in the North and Tropic of Capricorn (23.5° S) in the South.
- (ii) (a) A time zone is a region on a globe that experiences similar standard time. There are total 24 time zones.
- (b) Chinook wind comes in the category of warm and dry wind.
- (iii) (a) Land form associated with young stage of a river is called as valley, Land form associated with mature stage of river is called as river meander.
- (b) Warm ocean currents are those currents which flow from the low latitudes in the tropical zone towards the high latitudes.
- Cold currents are those ocean water currents which flow from the high latitudes towards the low latitudes.
- (iv) (a) Isobar are the lines drawn on weather map of show area having same atmospheric pressure.
- (b) Three types of rainfall are convection rainfall, orographic rainfall and frontal rainfall. The most common rainfall in equatorial region is convection rainfall.
- (v) (a) The increasing urbanisation and industrialisation, constant exposure to radiation and noise, are the causes of pollution.
- (b) Temperate grasslands are known as Pampas in South America and Veld in South Africa.
- (B) (i) (a) Due to small differences in temperature.
- (ii) (c) Excessive concentration of foreign matter in the air which adversely affects the environment.
- (iii) (a) Increases with more water vapour in atmosphere but decreases with reduction in water vapour content.
- (iv) (c) Lower the temperature
- (v) (b) From tropical to temperate zone
- (vi) (b) The least number of earthquakes are found at the Pacific Ring of Fire.
- (vii) (c) Mt. Vesuvius
- (viii) (c) They have fossils
- (ix) (a) 1. (i) 2. (ii) 3. (iv) 4. (iii)
- (i) Eastern Hemisphere : The Eastern Hemisphere, also called the ‘Oriental Hemisphere’ refers to the half of the Earth that is east of the Prime Meridian (which crosses Greenwich, England, United Kingdom) and West of 180º longitude.
- Western Hemisphere : The geographical Western Hemisphere of Earth refers to the half of the Earth that lies west of the Prime Meridian.
- (ii) Local time means the time of a certain place determined on the basis of the apparent movement of the Sun. When the Sun is at its highest point or zenith, the time happens to be noon there. It varies by four minutes for every longitude.
- (iii) Longitude plays a major role in determining time. As the Earth is spherical in shape, it has total 360 longitudes at 1° interval.
- Earth takes 24 hours to complete one rotation on its own axis.
- It means in 24 hours the Earth travels 360° and in 1 hour it completes 360° ÷ 24 = 15°
- For travelling 15° it takes 1 hour or 60 minutes.
- So to cover 1° the Earth will take 60 ÷ 15 = 4 minutes.
- This is how longitude is determinant of time of a particular place.
- (iv) The lines of latitude run parallel to equator as well as to each other. Thus they are called parallels of Latitude.
- The important parallels of latitude are:
- 1. The 0° latitude or the equator which runs from east to west through the centre of the Earth and divides the Earth into Northern and Southern Hemisphere.
- 2. 23.5° N and 23.5° S latitudes are known as the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn respectively.
- 3. 66.5° N and 66.5° S latitudes are known as the Arctic and Antarctic Circle respectively.
- 4. 90° N and 90° S are known as the North and South poles respectively.
- (i) Outer Core : The outer core is located about 1800 miles beneath the crust and is about 1400 miles (2250 km) thick. It is present in a liquid state, mainly composed of a nickel-iron alloy. The temperature ranges between 4000°F to 9000°F. Earth’s magnetic field is believed to be control by the liquid outer core.
- (ii) A Plateau, also known as ‘tableland’ because it is an area of highland consisting of a relatively flat surface, usually limited on at least one side by a steep slope falling abruptly to lower land.
- (iii) Cholera: Cholera causes severe diarrhea, vomiting and no urination.
- Dysentery: Dysentery causes loose motion, intestinal pain, and mild fever.
- (iii) The plateau can be classified into following category :
- 1. Intermontane Plateau: These plateaus are the most high and extensive types of the world. These are surrounded by hills and mountains on all sides, and are formed along with Fold Mountains. Eg. : The Tibetan plateau, the Bolivian plateau.
- 2. Piedmont Plateau: These are plateaus, which lie at the foot of the mountains. These are surrounded by mountain ranges on one side and plains on the other side, with the part facing the plains having a steep slope. Eg. The Patagonian plateau.
- 3. Volcanic Plateaus: These are formed due to the cooling down of volcanic lava by enormous accumulation of basaltic rock. Eg. Columbian Plateau, Ethiopian Plateau.
- (iv) On the Basis of Types of Eruptions :
- 1. Central Volcano: When the rock material comes out and mounds, hills or cones are formed, and then the volcanoes so formed are known as central type of volcanoes. E.g. : Fujiyama (Japan).
- 2. Conical Volcano: A conical volcano is one, which has a conical shape and steep slope. It erupts with explosive force and the material accumulates round the vent creating a cone. E.g. : Deccan Plateau (India), Northern Ireland, Iceland.
- 3. Fissure Volcano: It erupts from narrow cracks (fissures) several kilometers in length. The vast quantities of extremely fluid lava (basalt) that spreads far and wide forming layers of lava sheets. Eg. Idaho Plateau of USA
- 4. Shield Volcano: This type of volcano can be across hundreds of miles and many tens of thousands feet high. It has low slopes and consists almost entirely of frozen lava.
- (i) Intensity of earthquake wave is measured by Richter scale ranging from 0 to 9. A strong earthquake can have intensity value of more than 5. The Richter is named after the American seismologist Charles Francis Richter. The intensity of earthquake is the destructive power of earthquake and evaluation of its severity of the ground motion at a given location when it occurs.
- (ii) This zone is prone to severe Earthquakes having their focus more than 25 km deep. It comprises about 66% of the total Earthquakes of the world. This belt extends in the west from Alaska to Kurile, Japan, Mariana and the Philippine trenches. Most of the Earthquakes that occur here are volcanic Earthquakes; therefore, this belt is called as the Fiery Ring of the Pacific.
- (iii) (a) Oxidation: It is the reaction that occurs between the compounds and oxygen. The exposure of rocks to oxygen in air or water can result in a reaction between the oxygen and iron-based minerals in the rocks. This causes a weakening of the rock structure enabling them to crumble easily and making them more susceptible to other weathering processes.
- (b) Hydration: In this process, expansion of minerals occurs on coming into contact with rainwater and gets converts into a powdery mass. Feldspar is a common rock forming crystalline minerals, which turns to clay minerals known as kaolin because of hydration. The other minerals present along with feldspar got separated into loosely arranged particles and the rock eventually breaks up.
- (c) Carbonation: Is especially active when the reaction of environment is abundant with carbon dioxide. When rain falls, the atmospheric carbon dioxide combines with it and turns it into a weak acid (Carbonic acid). The action of this acid on limestone produces a salt, calcium carbonate, which is readily carried off in the flow of groundwater and streams.
- (iv) (a) In the middle course, the river leaves the mountain and joins the plain. Here the volume of water increases because of the confluence of several tributaries. At this stage, the vertical erosion decreases while the lateral erosion becomes active.
- (b) The load of the river at this stage increases but the load carrying capacity of the river depends upon the rate of flow. During the rainy season, the volume of water increases, the water overflows causing flood. The water then spreads over the low lying lands along side the banks and deposits its loads (mainly silt) there. Thus extensive flood plains are formed.
- (c) It may be a mound or a ridge of sand. A Sand Dune is built up when the wind faces some obstruction in its path such as a boulder , a irregular surface, a large rock or a bush. Dune ranges in height from a few metres to about 150 m. They often move in the direction of the wind.
- (i) (a) Surface ocean currents: Surface Ocean currents refer to movement of the top layer of ocean water. Examples of surface ocean currents are California Current in the Pacific Ocean basin and the Canary Current in the Atlantic ocean basin. These currents constitute about 10 per cent of all the water in the Ocean.
- (b) Deep ocean currents: Deep-water Ocean currents describe water movement patterns far below the ocean’s surface and the influence of the wind. Some examples are gulf stream, Lima, Peru, etc. These currents make up 90 per cent of the ocean water.
- (ii) (a) Tides are caused by the gravitational pull of the Moon and the Sun. The Moon exerts large pull than the Sun because it is closer to the Earth. During the revolution of Earth, The Earth makes various positions in respect to the Sun and the Moon. These positions cause the rise and fall of the ocean water, we call it tides.
- (b) The time lag between two consecutive high tides is 12 hours because Earth rotates through two tidal bulges in a day (24 hours).
- (iii) (a) Rainfall:The winds passing over warm currents pick up moisture and bring rain. E.g. the North Atlantic Drift and the Kuroshio current brings in sufficient rainfall along the west coasts of Europe and east coasts of Japan respectively.
- (b) Fog: The air above a warm current is warm and acquires a lot of water vapour. When it meets the cold air above cold ocean currents, the water vapour of the warm air are condensed into minute water particles, which form dense fog. e.g. Japanese coast has dense fog when the warm Kuroshio Current meets the cold Oyashio Current.
- (c) Fish Trade: The finest fishes are found in cold shallow waters. Places where cold and warm currents meet are ideal for the growth of plankton. These are very small organisms, which are food for fish. These regions have developed into major fishing grounds of the world. Newfoundland on the eastern coast of North America is the meeting point of the Gulf Stream and the Labrador Current.
- (iv) Spring Tide : This type of tide is also known as high tide. It occurs when the Sun, the Moon and the Earth are almost in a same straight line. The gravitational forces of the sun and the moon working together with combined force results in a very high tide. The height of such spring tides is 20% more than that of the normal tides. Such tides occur twice during the lunar month, usually just after the New moon and Full moon and their timing remains fixed.
- Neap Tide: This type of tide is also known as low tide. It occurs when the sun, the moon and the Earth are not in a straight line. The gravitational force of the sun opposes that of the moon and the difference between high and low tides is at its least. The height of such neap tides is 20% less than that of the normal tides. Such tides occur at the first and last quarters of the moon, when the sun and the moon are at right angles to each other.
|1. It is the lowest layer of the atmosphere.||This is the topmost layer of the atmosphere.|
|2. The upper limit of troposhere is called as tropopause. Here temperature steps dropping with increasing height and begins increasing with increasing height.||This layer cut as a transitional zone between the atmosphere and the inter-planetary space.|
- (ii) 1. The atmosphere filters the harmful rays radiated by the Sun.
- 2. Atmosphere maintains the moderate temperature over the earth.
- 3. Life on earth is possible due to the perfect combination of gases present in our atmosphere.
- (iv) 1. The cause of ozone depletion is the increase in the level of free radicals such as hydroxyl radicals, nitric oxide radicals and atomic chlorine and bromine.
- 2. The most important compounds, which account for almost 80% of the total depletion of ozone in the stratosphere, are chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). CFCs are used as cleaning agents in refrigerators, fire extinguishers, car propellants, insulating foams, etc.
- 3. These compounds are very stable in the lower atmosphere of the Earth, but in the stratosphere, they break down to release a free chlorine atom due to ultraviolet radiation.
- 4. A free chlorine atom reacts with an ozone molecule (O3) and forms chlorine monoxide and a molecule of oxygen.
|Permanent winds||Periodic Winds|
|1. As the name suggests winds move in a fixed direction througout a year.||These winds are limited to some seasons and period of the often change their direction.|
|2. For e.g. Trade winds.||For e.g. Monsoon winds.|
- (ii) Moving air is called ‘wind’. Wind always moves from high pressure areas to low pressure areas. Under the category of permanent winds, winds are divided into Easterly and Westerly as per their direction so are they called by the names Easterly and Westerly.
- (iv) Jet streams are the high velocity winds, which can influence the weather and climatic conditions of the region. Two types of Jet streams that move at the Tropical belt of 30°North latitude are Westerly Jet Stream and Easterly Jet Stream.
- Jet streams are important because :
- 1. They contribute to worldwide weather patterns and as such, they help in forecast weather based on their position.
- 2. Jet streams don’t generally follow a straight path — the patterns are called peaks and troughs — so they can shift, causing some to point at the poor forecasting skills of meteorologists.
- 3. It is also used for possible future power generation.
- 4. Jet streams act as an invisible director of the atmosphere. Jet streams are useful to form a borderv between hot and cold air.
|During winters the leaves, grass of flowers become comparatively cooler because of more radiation. When cold and moist air comes in their contract form of tiny droplets called dew.||When the earth surface re-radiate move energy during winter night than insolation become cooler than atmosphere. The moist air in its contact condenses in form of surface clouds named as fog.|
- (ii) (a) The Himalayan mountains are linked with orographic rainfall. As the monsoon wind from Indian Ocean prevails and strikes with Himalayas, it causes orographic rainfall.
- (b) The southern side of the Himalayas that faces the monsoon winds, become its windward side and the northern slope of the Himalayas remain dry (leeward slope) and causes the cold dry Tibetan desert.
- (iv) (a) Fog: It is a collection of liquid water droplets or ice crystals suspended in the air at or near the Earth’s surface. Fog forms when water evaporates from a surface or is added to the air. This evaporation can be from the ocean or another body of water or moist ground like a marsh or a farm field, depending on the type and location of the fog. As water begins to evaporate from these sources and turns into water vapour, it rises into the air to form water droplets. These droplets then condense to form fog when the process occurs close to the ground.
- (b) Mist: This is formed in the same way as fog, but is less dense. If the visibility is more than 1–2 km, the fog is called as Mist.
- (c) Dew: Small drops of water can be seen on grass, plants and trees shining like pearls in the early hours of morning. These water-drops are called dew. Dewdrops are formed due to condensation of water Humidity Precipitation 119 vapour. During the night when the hot air comes in contact with some cold surface, water vapour present in it condenses on the cold surface in the form of droplets. Dew formation is more when the sky is clear and less when it is cloudy.
- (i) (a) 1. Automobiles release toxic pollutants like hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides.
- 2. At present most of the automobile units run on non–renewable sources of energy like petrol and diesel.
- (b) 1. More and more automobiles should be run on renewable sources of energy like solar energy.
- 2. More emphasis should be given on public transportation rather than personal transportation.
|Water Pollution||Land Pollution|
|1. It occurs when the hazardous material are released in the water resources like river, likes etc by industries.||It is the contamination by harmful substances on land.|
|2. It contaminates ground water and surface water which is the essential requirement of all the living being.||Conditions like accumulation of garbage, cutting down of trees are associated with land pollution. It also effect ground water.|
- (iii) Noise is defined as an unpleasant sound that has an adverse affect on the human ear. Noise pollution is the increase in the rate of noise in the environment. Noise can be extremely dangerous. Noise levels can be measured by decibel method (decibel is the unit of sound): Decibel, one tenth of a Bel, where one bel represents a difference in level between two intensities I1 , I0 where one is ten times greater than the other.
- Noise pollution has the following hazardous effects :
- 1. Interferes with human communication as in a noisy area, communication is severely affected.
- 2. Hearing damage: Noise can cause temporary or permanent hearing loss. It depends on the intensity and duration of sound level.
- 3. Continuous exposure to noise affects the functioning of various systems of the body. It may result in hypertension, insomnia (sleeplessness), gastrointestinal and digestive disorders, etc.
- (iv) (a) Solar Energy: This is a great source of energy which can be generated and converted into electricity without causing any pollution. Tropical countries like India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, USA, European countries, African countries, Australia etc. can generate such energy in abundance. Solar energy can be used for lighting, water heating, cooking etc. as well as can be put through in the power grid.
- (b) Wind Energy: This is also another source to generate electricity which can be used for various purposes. Wind is used to drive a wind mill and run electrical generators. Asia’s largest wind firm of 10 megawatt is located in Gujarat and is being used to pump drinking water.
- (c) Biogas: It is the most important energy in rural areas. Biogas plants produce enriched fertilizer as a by-product. The use of biogas improves sanitation and provide smokeless and efficient cooking fuel. It can also be used for power generation and lighting.
- (i) The tropical wet and dry climate is called savanna after its vegetation. i.e., grassland especially elephant grass that grow upto five metres. Deciduous trees are found near the equator, Trees diminish towards the deserts acacias, palm, baobab are most commonly found.
- (ii) The Equatorial Region is a hot and wet region. The mornings are bright and sunny, with gradually increasing temperature. In the afternoon, the sky is overcast, followed by heavy downpours of convectional rain. The nights are cool with a clear sky. There is no winter season. Cloudiness and heavy rainfall help to moderate the daily temperature. Regular land and sea breezes help in maintaining an equable climate.
- (iii) (a) South America: In this area there are two distinct regions of Savanna, North and South of the Equator, namely the Llanos of the Orinoco Basin and the Campos of the Brazilian Highlands, Guiana Highland, Venezuela, Columbia and highlands of Bolivia. In Central America, the main regions are Cuba, Jamaica and the Islands on the Pacific.
- (b) Africa: In this area, it includes the southern part of Congo Basin, Central Nigeria, southern Kenya, Uganda, Central African Republic, Benin, Togo, Chad, Ghana, eastern Guinea, Tanzania, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Zambia and Anglola.
- (c) Australia: In this area, it includes the interior lands marginal to the desert in the northern parts of the continent including Northern Territory and Queensland interior of continents as offshore winds.
- (iv) 1. The coniferous forest region does not support a favourable climatic environment for population concentration. Most of the area is covered by forests and marshes, which put obstacle in the way of development of means of transport, etc.
- 2. Farming is not considered as an important economic activity due to the intense cold prevailing in most part of the year, short growing season of about 90 days and low fertility of the soil covered with snow.
- 3. However, the soil is favourable, in some parts of Canada, where the soil is covered with sand, clay, gravel, deposited by the melting glaciers of past ages or in the sheltered valley and lowlands bordering the Steppes.
- 4. In these areas where the soil is favourable for agriculture, some crops like barley, oats, rye, potatoes, etc., are grown.
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