Oswal 61 Sample Question Papers ICSE Class 9 History & Civics Solutions
- (i) (a) 42nd
- (ii) (c) Secular
- (iii) (d) Article 32
- (iv) (b) Mid-term elections
- (v) (d) Cultural activities
- (vi) (b) Mayor
- (vii) (a) Mohenjo-daro
- (viii) (d) Both have been discovered by the same man.
- (ix) (a) Rig Veda
- (x) (a) Magic and Charm
- (xi) (c) Three baskets
- (xii) (a) Chandragupta Maurya
- (xiii) (a) 326 BC
- (xiv) (b) Murugan
- (xv) (a) Failure of rain led to severe famine and farmers were unable to pay the increased revenue.
- (xvi) (a) Ilango Adigal
- (i) Three important constituents of a municipality are:
- 1. General Body
- 2. Chairman/President
- 3. Chief Executive Officer
- (ii) Functions of a Municipal Corporation in the field of public health are:
- 1. It is the duty of the Corporation to maintain hospitals, centres of welfare, maternity homes and dispensaries.
- 2. It is also the duty of the Municipal Corporation to organise vaccination and inoculation camps for eradication of infectious diseases.
- (iii) Iltutmish is considered as the real founder of the Delhi Sultanate due to the following reasons:
- 1. He made Delhi his capital in place of Lahore.
- 2. Iltutmish ensured the security of the Delhi Sultanate from internal dangers as well as from foreign agressions. He suppressed the rebellious governors and also saved the Delhi Sultanate from the wrath of Chengiz Khan.
- (iv) Sabha and Samiti were two assemblies. The Sabha was a small group of elected members. It consisted of distinguished people, who were in direct contact with the king and advised him. The Samiti represented the entire tribe, to whom the people could go to and give them their suggestions.
- (v) Ashoka was concerned about his people and took several welfare measures for the comfort of his society. The State built good roads and planted trees along the roads to provide shade to the travellers. Fruit bearing trees were planted to provide food for the travellers. The rest houses were constructed for travellers to rest. Wells were dug at regular intervals to provide water for the travellers.
- (vi) Tirukkural is a classic Tamil text written by Thiruvalluvar. It consists of 1,330 couplets and emphasises on the values and ethics that people across all societies can follow.
- (vii) Aryabhata was a great astronomer and a mathematician. It is believed that he found the exact value of π (pi) and the formula to calculate the area of a triangle. He proved that the Earth revolves around the Sun and the Earth rotates on its axis. He also explained the causes of solar and lunar eclipses.
- (i) The Constituent Assembly represented people from all sections and strata of the Indian society. It was known as ‘Mirror of the Nation’. The members of the Constituent Assembly included Hindus, Sikhs, Muslims, Anglo-Indians, Christians and Parsis. The Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes were adequately represented in the Constituent Assembly. Women were represented by Mrs. Vijaylakshmi Pandit, Mrs. Sarojini Naidu, Mrs. G. Durgabai and Rajkumari Amrit Kaur. The first sitting of the Constituent Assembly was held on 9 December, 1946 at the Central Hall of the Parliament.
- (ii) The Drafting Committee was appointed on August 29, 1947 with Dr. B. R. Ambedkar as the Chairman. There were six other members. The first Draft of the Indian Constitution was presented to the Constitutent Assembly on February 21, 1948. It took the Constituent Assembly 2 years, 11 months and 17 days to frame the Constitution.
- (iii) The Constitution was enforced on January 26, 1950 because it was on this date in 1930 the Indian National Congress made the resolution for Purna Swaraj at Lahore Session.
- (i) The role of Election Commission in free and fair elections in India is as follows:
- 1. The Commission is responsible to prepare electoral rolls and get them revised before every election so as to add the names of new voters and remove the name of those who have either died or moved out of constituency.
- 2. To improve the accuracy of the electoral rolls and prevent electoral frauds, the Election Commission issues photo identity card to all citizens who are entitled to vote.
- 3. The Commission can also cancel polls in case of large scale rigging, irregularities or violence during the election process.
- (ii) The Election Commission’s rules governing election symbols are as follows:
- 1. The Commission has stipulated that all National and State level parties can have a reserved symbol for all the candidates nominated by them. Thus, the BJP’s ‘lotus’ symbol will not be allotted to any other party or individual, even if the BJP does not have a candidate in a particular constituency or state.
- 2. The independent candidates can select any symbol out of a list of ‘Free Symbols’.
- 3. The purpose behind allotting symbols is that illiterate masses cannot read the names of the candidates of the parties. It is easy for them to identify the symbols for electing candidates of their choice.
- (iii) Appointment and Tenure of Election Commissioners:
- 1. The President appoints the Chief Election Commissioner and other Election Commissioners.
- 2. They have tenure of six years or up to the age of 65 years, whichever is earlier.
- 3. They do not hold any office of profit after retirement.
- 4. Through impeachment by the Parliament, the Chief Election Commissioner can be removed from the office of the Election Commission. Other Election Commissioners can be removed by the President at the behest of the Chief Election Commissioner.
- (i) Two supervisory functions of the Panchayat Samiti are :
- 1. To manage and guide the work of the Gram Panchayats.
- 2. To analyse and review the budget of the Panchayats.
- (ii) A Zila Parishad consists of 40-60 members comprising of the following :
- 1. Presidents of all the Panchayat Samitis in the district.
- 2. Members of Parliament and State Assembly within the area of jurisdiction.
- 3. One person to represent each of the cooperative societies in that district.
- 4. Representatives of women, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.
- 5. Deputy Commissioner of the district.
- 6. Supervisors of all the Government departments in the district.
- (iii) To become a member of Gram Panchayat, following criteria have to be fulfilled :
- 1. As per the act, a candidate has to attain the prescribed age.
- 2. The name of the candidate must be registered as a voter in the particular Panchayat area.
- 3. The candidate must be mentally sound.
- (i) The people of Indus Valley were skilled town planners. The city was divided into two main sections: the ‘Citadel’ which was built on a raised platform and had all the official buildings and the ‘Lower Town’, which had the residences. The city had a grid system layout with elaborate drainage system. The streets were straight and cut each other at right angles dividing the entire city into square or rectangular blocks. The corners of the streets were rounded to ease the movement of carts. Fire-burnt bricks were used for paving the streets.
- (ii) The most imposing structure that was unearthed at Mohenjo-daro was the Great Bath.
- 1. The Great Bath was a large rectangular tank in a courtyard, surrounded by corridor on all four sides. There were rooms on three sides, in one of which was a large well.
- 2. There were two flights of steps on the north and the south leading into the tank, which was made watertight by setting bricks on edge and using a mortar of gypsum. Water from the tank flowed into a huge drain.
- 3. Across a lane to the north lay a smaller building with eight bathrooms, four on each side of the corridor. Drains from each bathroom connected to a drain that ran along the corridor.
- 4. It was situated on the citadel or the upper town, which suggests it must have been used for some kind of ritual bath.
- (iii) It is not certain as to how the Harappan Civilisation suddenly came to an end. There are various theories regarding it. The civilisation might have met with some natural disasters like earthquakes or floods, or may be river Indus changed its course or direction. Change in climate could have been another reason for its decline. Overgrazing of grasslands, and destruction of forests may have degraded the quality of soil and cause ecological imbalance. Some people believe that the invasion by Aryans brought an end to Harappan Civilisation.
- (i) The Eight-fold path, also known as the middle path (Ashtangika Marga) of Gautam Buddha, consists of eight principles telling us about striking a balance in life.
- These are :
- 1. Right to faith or belief, that is to give up all the desires in daily life.
- 2. Right aspiration to stay away from earthly evils and meaningless rituals.
- 3. Right speech, that is to speak the truth and not to think bad of others.
- 4. Right action, that is to stay away from theft, violence and luxuries.
- 5. Right living, not to deal dishonestly with people.
- 6. Right effort, that is to work towards liberating oneself from sin and for the welfare of others.
- 7. Right meditation, that is to focus on only that which is right.
- 8. Right recollection, that is to think any of sacred things.
- Chaityas and Viharas were built from rock-cut caves for Buddhist and Jain monks.
- Chaitya : Chaitya was a rectangular hall of worship, with a beautiful inner walls and a semi-circular roof. The hall had long rows of pillars with a stupa at the far end of the chaitya. Meetings were also held in chaityas.
- Vihara : Vihara or the monastery was a place of residence for the monks and nuns. It had a central hall and surrounding it has numerous cells, which served as residences. The columns in the viharas were beautifully sculptured, had art work and magnificent paintings.
- (iii) After the war of Kalinga, Ashoka turned to Buddhism and took steps in spread of Buddhism far and wide :
- 1. He visited many places where Buddhism was followed and gave liberal grants.
- 2. He sent missionaries to foreign lands like Sri Lanka, Nepal, Tibet, China and Japan to spread Buddhism.
- 3. He sent his daughter, Sanghamitra and his son, Mahendra to Sri Lanka to spread Buddhism.
- 4. He constructed many Buddhist stupas and viharas for monks and nuns.
- 5. He placed edicts at many places sharing his valuable information and thoughts on Buddhism.
- 6. He discouraged hunting and started following the policy of non-violence and protecting wildlife.
- (i) This is an image of Sir Isaac Newton. He was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, physicist and author. He laid the foundation for modern physical optics and discovered the law of universal gravitation and three laws of motion. He also made significant contribution in the field of mathematics.
- (ii) Galileo was an Italian astronomer, mathematician and natural philosopher. Galileo discovered the telescope, thermometer and hydrostatic balance. He proved the heliocentric effect (Sun is at the centre and all other planets revolve around it) as had been explained by Copernicus.
- (iii) Great advancement was made in the field of medical science during Renaissance. Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) is often considered as the founder of modern human anatomy. He wrote the book, De humani corporis fabrica (On the fabric of human body), which was innovative work on human anatomy. He was the first person to explain mechanical ventilation. William Harvey (1578-1657) described in detail the systematic circulation of brain processes visual and sensory information and how it connects to the soul. Ambroise Pare (1510-1590), a French surgeon, anatomist and an inventor of surgical instruments experimented to find out how turpentine, egg yolk and oil of roses could be applied to wounds to relieve pain and seal wounds effectively.
- (i) The Guptas are said to be the first dynasty to build permanent free-standing Hindu temples and thus, began the long tradition of unique Indian temple architecture. Major change in structure was Shikhara (pointed roofs) instead of flat-roofed temples. The walls and pillars were adorned with beautiful carvings and sculptures showing various deities from Hindu mythology. Most temples were square in shape with a courtyard and a square sanctum with a small garbhagriha in the centre.(i) The Guptas are said to be the first dynasty to build permanent free-standing Hindu temples and thus, began the long tradition of unique Indian temple architecture. Major change in structure was Shikhara (pointed roofs) instead of flat-roofed temples. The walls and pillars were adorned with beautiful carvings and sculptures showing various deities from Hindu mythology. Most temples were square in shape with a courtyard and a square sanctum with a small garbhagriha in the centre.
- (ii) The art of painting reached its pinnacle during the Gupta period. The rock-cut sculptures at Ajanta caves are one of the finest examples of ancient Indian art. Good quality water colour was used. Wall paintings and frescoes portray life of Buddha and scenes from Jataka stories. It has beautiful designs of flowers, trees, animals, mythological characters, kings, royal ladies, courtiers, peasants and beggars. The paintings carry secular messages and give a perspective of life in ancient India. Ajanta caves are part of UNESCO World Heritage Site. The paintings of Bagh Caves of Madhya Pradesh are also fine examples of art during Gupta period.
- (iii) The main features of Gupta sculpture are as follows :
- 1. Foreign influence which was seen in Mathura and Gandhara Schools of Art was ceased out as the Gupta rulers brought out a totally new identity in sculpture making which was characteristically Indian.
- 2. Buddha, Lord Vishnu and Lord Shiva were depicted in various poses. One of the outstanding examples is the sculpture of standing Buddha in Sarnath. Another example is a gracefully reclining sculpture of Lord Vishnu found in Vishnu Temple, Deogarh, in Uttar Pradesh.
- 3. The sculptures exuded understanding of human body by showing graceful poses and calmness in facial expressions.
- (i) Socialism is a social and economic system that propagates public rather than private ownership or control of property and natural resources.
- (ii) Socialism was an outcome of capitalism, which arose due to Industrial Revolution. Capitalism led to unequal distribution of income and wealth, exploitation of workers and poverty. As power and wealth were concentrated in the hands of a few, the condition of mass were miserable and they were forced to live in pathetic condition. While the capitalist class earned huge profits, the working class made meagre earnings. Even women and children had to work for as long as fifteen hours in unhealthy environment. With the onset of Industrial Revolution, the cottage industry was destroyed. It could not withstand the competition from machine-made goods. Many people lost their means of livelihood. To a certain extent even the government became a tool in the hands of the capitalists. All these causes led to the birth of Socialism.
- (iii) Karl Marx (1818-1883) was a German economist, political theorist, historian, journalist and a revolutionary socialist. He was one of the most important personalities in socialist movement. He wanted to end the capitalist system and bring about a classless and stateless society.
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