ISC Class 11 Biology Syllabus 2024-25

CISCE has released the Latest Updated Syllabus of the New Academic Session 2024-25, for class 11. It is available under the ‘‘Regulations and Syllabuses’ page of ISC 2026 on

Class 11th Syllabus has been released by CISCE. It’s very important for both Teachers and Students to understand the changes and strictly follow the topics covered in each subject under each stream for Class 11th.

We have also updated Oswal Gurukul Books as per the Latest Paper Pattern prescribed by CISCE Board for each Subject Curriculum.

Students can directly access the ISC Biology Syllabus for Class 11 of the academic year 2024-25 by clicking on the link below. 

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ISC Biology Class 11 Latest Syllabus 2024-25

There will be two papers in the subject:

Paper I: Theory: 3 hours ...70 marks

Paper II: Practical: 3 hours ... 15 marks

Project Work … 10 marks

Practical File … 5 marks

Paper 1- Theory: 70 Marks

1. Diversity of Living Organisms 09 Marks
2. Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants 11 Marks
3. Cell: Structure and Function 15 Marks
4. Plant Physiology 17 Marks
5. Human Physiology 18 Marks
TOTAL 70 Marks

Paper I - theory - 70 Marks

Note: All structures (internal and external) are required to be taught along with diagrams.

1. Diversity of Living Organisms

Need for classification; three domains of life; taxonomy and systematics; concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy; binomial nomenclature.

Need for classification should be discussed. Three domains of life – distinguishing features of (archaea, bacteria, eukarya). Definition and explanation of the terms taxonomy (numerical taxonomy, cytotaxonomy and chemotaxonomy) and systematics. Concept of species. Major taxonomical hierarchies (phylum, class, order, family, genus, species): definition and examples with reference to classification of man, house fly, mango and wheat. Rules of binomial nomenclature and advantages of using scientific names.

Three systems of classification – artificial, natural and phylogenetic.

(ii) Biological Classification

Five kingdom classification; salient features and classification of Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia.
Lichens, Viruses and Viroids.

(a) Five-kingdom system of classification and characteristics of different kingdoms with examples.

(b) Kingdom Monera: Bacteria - classification of bacteria according to shape, nutrition and mode of respiration;
differences between gram +ve and gram –ve bacteria; types of reproduction – definition of fission, conjugation,
transduction and transformation (details not required).

A brief idea of the role of different types of archaebacteria (methanogens, halophiles and thermoacidophiles in
their extreme environments).

Mycoplasma – three distinctive features.

Economic importance with reference to role of bacteria in sewage treatment, antibiotics, energy production and house hold products (curd and cheese only).

(c) Kingdom Protista – only two general characteristics and two examples of subgroups: (i) Chrysophytes
(ii) Dinoflagellates, (iii) Euglenoids, (iv) Slime moulds, (v) Protozoans (to be studied under rhizopods, flagellates,
ciliates and sporozoans with two characteristics including modes of locomotion and two examples of each).

(d) Kingdom Fungi: general characteristics and mode of reproduction of each (including types of spores and sexual reproduction – definition of isogamy, anisogamy, oogamy, plasmogamy, karyogamy and dikaryophase).
Zygomycetes, Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes, Deuteromycetes - characteristics with examples. Role of fungi in the field of medicine, bakery and environmental decomposition. Definition of lichens and mycorrhiza (ecto and

Life cycles not required.

(e) Virus (characteristic features – link between living and non-living, structure of TMV and bacteriophage and
contribution of the following scientists: D.J. Ivanowsky, M.W. Beijerinck, W.M. Stanley) and Viroid (definition

(iii) Plant Kingdom

(a) Algae - characteristics (morphology, common name, major pigments, stored food, composition of cell wall, flagellar number and position of insertion, habitat, mode of sexual reproduction) and examples of Chlorophyceae, Phaeophyceae, Rhodophyceae; Economic importance of algae – any five.

(b) Bryophyta – general characteristics, distinctive features of liverworts and mosses; graphic outline of life cycle of Funaria with reference to alternation of generations. Economic importance of bryophytes.

(c) Pteridophyta: characteristics; classification into classes: psilopsida (Psilotum), lycopsida (Selaginella,
Lycopodium), sphenopsida (Equisetum) and pteropsida (Dryopteris, Pteris and Adiantum). Graphic outline of life cycle of a typical pteridophyte (fern). Definition of homospory and heterospory with relevant examples. Economic importance.

(d) Gymnosperms: generalcharacteristics and graphic outline of life cycle of a typical gymnosperm (Pinus). Economic importance.

(iv) Animal Kingdom

Animal Kingdom: animal construction - body plan (cell aggregate plan, blind-sac plan and tube-within-tube plan), symmetry (spherical, radial and bilateral symmetry), coelom development (diploblastic and triploblastic
organisation in animals, acoelomate, pseudocoelomate, coelomate and haemocoelomate), segmentation.

Non-chordata - five distinguishing characters with two examples of Porifera, Cnidaria, Ctenophora, Platyhelminthes, Nematoda (Aschelminthes), Annelida, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, Hemichordata.

Chordata – sub-classification of Chordata with reference to notochord - sub phyla Urochordata, Cephalochordata. Vertebrata (classes – cyclostomata, chondrichthyes, osteichthyes, amphibia, reptilia, aves and
mammalia) – three distinguishing characters with two examples of each).

2. Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants

(i) Morphology of Flowering Plants

(a) Morphology and modifications of root, stem, leaf.

Types of roots (tap, fibrous, adventitious), regions, modifications of roots for storage (Tuberous – e.g. Mirabilis and sweet potato; fusiform – e.g. radish; conical – e.g., carrot; napiform – e.g. turnip), respiration (pneumatophores) and support (stilt and prop).

Stems – features (nodes internodes, buds), modifications – underground (tuber, rhizome, corm) aerial (tendril, thorn, Phylloclade, cladode) and subaerial (runner, sucker, stolon, offset).

Leaves - parts of a simple leaf, venation, types of leaves (simple and compound – pinnate and palmate), phyllotaxy – alternate, opposite, whorled (with an example of each). Modifications for mechanical support (tendril), protection (spine), storage (bulb), reproduction (Bryophyllum); insectivorous plants (pitcher plant, Venus-fly-trap).

(b) Morphology of flower. Structure of a typical flower, types of inflorescence (racemose and cymose).

Structure of a typical flower, bracteates/ebracteate, [symmetry (actinomorphic, zygomorphic), trimerous/tetramerous/pentamerous complete/ incomplete, non-essential whorls (calyx: gamosepalous, polysepalous, corolla: gamopetalous, polysepalous, perianth, aestivation: valvate, twisted, imbricate, vexillary), essential whorls (androecium: cohesion - syngenesious, synandrous, monadelphous, diadelphous, polyadelphous; adhesion – epipetalous, epiphyllous; number of lobes – monothecous, dithecous; Gynoecium:
position of ovary – epigynous, hypogynous, perigynous, cohesion – apocarpous, syncarpous, number of
locules – unilocular, bilocular, multilocular], types of inflorescence (racemose and cymose – definition and
differences; subtypes not required).

(ii) Anatomy of Flowering Plants

Plant Tissues: types of plant tissues: Meristematic tissues: classification of meristematic tissue. Permanent Tissues: structure and function of simple tissues (parenchyma, collenchyma and sclerenchyma) and complex tissues (xylem and phloem), tissue system. Internal structure of root, stem, and leaf.

Characteristics of meristematic tissue; classification of meristems based on origin and location; structure, function and location of permanent tissues; simple and complex tissues; epidermal, ground and vascular tissue systems.

Cellular diagrams of T.S. of roots and stem and V.S. of monocot and dicot leaves are required.

(iii) Structural Organisation in Animals: Frog  Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of frog a brief account only.

3. Cell: Structure and Function

(i) Cell - the Unit of Life Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life: Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic
cells; Plant cell and animal cell; cell envelope; cell membrane, cell wall; cell organelles – ultrastructure and function; endomembrane system, mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, microbodies; cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles; nucleus.

Historical aspects, cell theory, size and shape of cells; general structure of prokaryotic cell.

General structure of eukaryotic cell, ultrastructure and function of cell wall (including definition of plasmodesmata), cell membrane [ (description of fluid mosaic model; functions of the plasma membrane: active and passive transport, brief explanation of facilitated diffusion (uniport, symport and antiport) with one
example]. Mitochondria, nucleus (nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus, structure and types of chromosomes on the basis of the position of centromere, satellite), types of plastids, endomembrane system (endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex, lysosomes and vacuoles), ribosomes, microbodies, cytoskeleton (microfilaments,
microtubules and intermediate filaments), cilia, flagella and centrioles; differences between prokaryotic cell and eukaryotic cell, plant cell and animal cell.

(ii) Biomolecules

Proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, enzymes. Carbohydrates: general classification and functions of: monosaccharides (glucose, ribose and deoxyribose), disaccharides (maltose, lactose and sucrose),
polysaccharides (glycogen, starch, cellulose, inulin, and chitin). 

Proteins: amino acids – (structure: glycine, alanine, serine); amino acids as zwitter-ion; examples of acidic, basic, neutral, sulphur containing amino acids; essential and nonessential amino acids; levels of protein structure (primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary); functions of proteins.

Lipids: classification, structure and functions of fats and oils.

Enzymes: general properties, nomenclature and classification of enzymes according to type of reactions, co-factors (prosthetic groups, coenzymes and metal ions). Factors affecting enzyme activity - temperature, pH,
substrate concentration. Competitive inhibitors.

(iii) Cell Cycle and Cell Division

Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance.

Definition of C-value, different stages of cell cycle (Go, G1, S and G2 and M).

Different stages of mitosis and meiosis (prophase – I) with diagrams. Significance of mitosis and meiosis. Differences between mitosis and meiosis.

4. Plant Physiology

(i) Photosynthesis in higher plants

Photosynthesis as a mean of autotrophic nutrition; site of photosynthesis, pigments involved in photosynthesis (elementary idea); photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation; chemiosmotic hypothesis; photorespiration; C3 and C4 pathways; factors affecting photosynthesis.

Contributions of Priestley, Sachs, Engelmann, van Neil; differences between absorption and action spectra.

Brief idea of photosynthetic pigments (difference between chlorophyll ‘a’&‘b’, carotenoids and xanthophyll), photochemical phase - pigment systems, cyclic and noncyclic photophosphorylation, chemiosmotic hypothesis; biosynthetic phase - C3 and C4 cycles – graphic representation in correct sequence (carboxylation, glycolytic reversal and regeneration of pentose); Differences between C3 and C4 plants, C3 and C4 cycles, Photosystems I and II, Photorespiration pathway in brief - explanation of how RuBP carboxylase acts as RuBP oxygenase. Kranz anatomy. Blackman’s Law of limiting factors, factors affecting photosynthesis.

(ii) Respiration in Plants

Exchange of gases; cellular respiration - glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); energy relations - number of ATP molecules generated; amphibolic pathways; respiratoryquotient.

Types of respiration; mechanism of respiration: glycolysis, Krebs’ cycle, ETS (only flowchart). Oxidative phosphorylation – definition; Brief idea of fermentation and Amphibolic pathway. Definition of respiratory quotient and RQ values of carbohydrates, proteins and fats.

(iii) Plant Growth and Development

Seed germination; phases of plant growth; plant growth rate; differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation; sequence of developmental processes in a plant cell; growth regulators - auxin, gibberellin,
cytokinin, ethylene, ABA.

Definition of seed dormancy and quiescence; causes and methods of breaking seed dormancy; definition of hypogeal, epigeal and viviparous germination with two examples of each. A brief idea about differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation. Phases of growth in meristems, growth rate – definition; measurement of growth by direct method and use of auxanometer, factors affecting growth.

Discovery and physiological role of growth regulators in plants (such as auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, ethylene and abscisic acid – four effects of each); application of growth regulators.

5. Human Physiology

(i) Breathing and exchange of gases.

Respiratory organs in animals (recall only); Respiratory system in humans; mechanism of breathing - exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of breathing, respiratory volumes; disorders related to respiration.

Organs involved in respiration; mechanism of pulmonary gas exchange; breathing process should be explained showing the action of diaphragm and intercostal muscles, regulation of breathing ; transport of oxygen in the blood, oxyhaemoglobin dissociation curve; transport of CO2; chloride shift, pulmonary air volumes and lung capacities; disorders of respiratory system such as - asthma, emphysema, occupational respiratory disorders.

(ii) Body fluids and circulation

Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood; composition of lymph and its functions; human circulatory system - structure of human heart and blood vessels; cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG; double circulation; regulation of cardiac activity; disorders of circulatory system.

Composition of blood plasma, functions of plasma proteins, blood corpuscles. Importance of ABO groups in blood transfusion, Rh factor and its importance in transfusion and pregnancy; clotting of blood to be taught briefly; lymphatic system – a brief idea of lymph (composition and function), Difference between closed and open vascular system; external and internal structure of heart; working of the heart and blood flow through the heart during different phases should be described under the following headings - auricular systole, auricular diastole, ventricular systole, ventricular diastole and joint diastole; definition of stroke volume and cardiac
output, regulation of heart beat, ECG; arterial blood pressure (systolic and diastolic), double circulation. The internal structure of artery, vein and capillary.

Importance of ABO groups in blood transfusion, Rh factor and its importance in transfusion and pregnancy; clotting of blood to be taught briefly; lymphatic system – a brief idea of lymph (composition and function), lymphatic capillaries and lymph nodes; disorders of the circulatory system such as hypertension, coronary artery disease, angina pectoris and heart failure.

(iii) Excretory products and their elimination.

Modes of excretion - ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism; human excretory system - structure and function; urine formation, osmoregulation; regulation of kidney function, renin - angiotensin, atrial natriuretic factor, ADH; role of erythropoietin; role of other organs in excretion; disorders of the excretory system - uraemia, renal failure, renal calculi, nephritis; dialysis and artificial kidney, kidney transplant.

Define, differentiate and explain the terms ammonotelism, ureotelism and uricotelism; external and internal structure of the kidney (L.S.); structure of nephron; physiology of urine formation - ultra filtration, selective
reabsorption and active (tubular) secretion. Counter current system, regulation of urine formation, definition of micturition, reninangiotensin-aldosterone system, role of atrial natriuretic factor, ADH and erythropoietin

Role of skin, liver and lungs in excretion. Homeostasis – definition. Disorders of the excretory system - uraemia, renal failure, renal calculi, nephritis.

Haemodialysis and artificial kidney. Kidney transplant.

(iv) Locomotion and Movement

Types of movement - ciliary, flagellar, muscular; skeletal muscles - contractile proteins and muscle contraction; skeletal system and its functions; joints; disorders of muscular and skeletal system.

Locomotion: Basic aspects of human skeleton (number and names of the bones of axial and appendicular skeleton).

Functions of human skeleton; different types of joints - their location and function; general properties of muscles; structure of skeletal muscle - sliding filament theory of muscle contraction; chemical events during muscle contraction; definition of summation, tetanus, rigor mortis, differences between red and white muscles.

Disorders of muscular and skeletal system: (i) Myasthenia gravis, (ii) Tetany, (iii) Muscular dystrophy, (iv) Arthritis,
(v) Osteoporosis, (vi) gout.

(v) Neural Control and Coordination

Neuron and nerves; nervous system in humans - central nervous system; peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system; generation and conduction of nerve impulse.

Structure and functions of various parts of the brain and spinal cord; conduction of nerve impulses through nerve fibre (nonmyelinated and myelinated) and through synapse.

(vi) Chemical Co-ordination and Integration

Endocrine glands and hormones; human endocrine system - hypothalamus, pituitary, pineal, thymus, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, GI tract, pancreas, gonads; mechanism of hormone action (elementary idea); role of hormones as messengers and regulators, hypo - and hyperactivity and relate d disorders; dwarfism, acromegaly, cretinism, goiter, exophthalmic goiter, diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus, Grave’s disease, Addison's disease.

Brief idea of location of endocrine glands; role of hypothalamus; hormones secreted by different lobes of pituitary and their functions; feedback control of tropic hormones to be discussed giving examples; hormones of pineal, thymus, thyroid, parathyroid, pancreas, adrenal glands, GI tract (gastrin, secretin, GIP, CCK-PZ) and gonads; mechanism of hormone action (through cAMP and steroid hormones only); effects of hypo secretion and hyper secretion of various hormones of the above mentioned glands.

Note: Diseases related to all the human physiological systems to be taught in brief

Internal Assessment

Project Work And Practical File

15 Marks

Project Work – 10 Marks

Candidate is to creatively execute one project/assignment on any aspect of Biology. Preference is to be given to investigatory projects. Following is only a suggestive list of projects. Teachers may assign or students may choose any one project of their choice.

(i) Project related to experiment on any aspect of plant life/animal life.

(ii) Project related to any aspect of environment.

(iii) Diabetes.

(iv) Endocrine disorders.

(v) Yeast fermentation and production of alcohol or any other commercial industry dependant on plants and/or animals or their products.

In addition, students may be taught how to culture:

− Earthworms.

− Protozoans.

− Moulds.

− Setting up of an aquarium.

Suggested Evaluation Criteria for Project Work:

Format of the Project:

– Content
– Introduction
– Presentation (graphs, tables, charts, newspaper cuttings, diagrams, photographs, statistical analysis if relevant)
– Conclusion/ Summary
– Bibliography

Practical File – 5 Marks

Each practical done during the year, needs to be recorded by the student in the Practical file and the same must be checked, signed and dated by the teacher.

Teachers are required to assess students on the basis of the Biology Practical file maintained by them during the academic year.

2023-24 Reduced Syllabus

(for reference purposes only)

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