Improvement in Food Resources Class 9 Notes Science - Chapter 15

Chapter: 15

What Are Improvement In Food Resources ?

Food Sources

Plant: Obtained from agriculture

Animals: Obtained from animal husbandry

Need For Efficiency Of Crops And Livestock

• The population of India is growing at a faster rate hence more amount of food is required to meet the rising demand.

• The agricultural land is limited as compared to the growing population.

Efforts Made To Meet The Increase In Food Demands

Green Revolution: The introduction of modern technology and equipment, usage of fertilizers and high-quality seeds.

White Revolution: Increasing the growth of milk production by introducing dairy development programs.

The introduction of these revolutions has led to an increased use of natural resources hence now sustainable methods of increasing crops and livestock efficiency are also required.

Types of Crops


Crops that are sown during the monsoon. Example: Paddy, maize


Crops that are sown after the monsoon. Example: Mustard, potato

Agricultural Practices

Practices used to cultivate crops are called agricultural practices.

  • 1. Preparation of Soil
  • 2. Sowing seeds
  • 3. Manure and Fertilizers
  • 4. Irrigation
  • 5. Weeding
  • 6. Crop protection
  • 7. Harvesting
  • 8. Preservation and storage


Crop variety improvement


1. Higher yield

2. Biotic and Abiotic resistance

3. Improved variety

Genetically Modified Crops (GMC)

    • Hybridization
  • Inter-specific (between different species)
  • Inter-generic (between different genera)
  • Inter-varietal (between different varities)

4. Wider adeptability

Crop production improvement


1. Nutrient management

  • Manure
  • Fertilizer

2. Irrigation

  • Wells
  • Rivers
  • Life system

3. Cropping patterns

  • Inter Cropping
  • Mixed Cropping
  • Crop Rotation

Crop protection improvement


1. Protection in field

2. protection during storage

  • Biotic
  • Abiotic


The organic substances obtained from decomposition of plant and animal wastes.


The chemical substances rich in nutrients.

Difference Between Fertilizer And Manure

Fertilizer Manure
Inorganic salt Natural substance
Chemical substance Organic substance
Prepared in factories Prepared in fields
Does not humidify the soil Provides humus to the soil
Rich in plant nutrients Less rich in plan nutrients

Animal Husbandry

In agriculture, animal husbandry is a special field that deals with rising of the livestock in a controlled, selective environment by providing  them with the right care so that they can stay healthy and disease free.