Section-A

There are 17 questions in this section. All are mandatory.

  • 1. d. eighteenth century
  • 2. c. One-fourth
  • 3. a. (iv), (iii), (i), (ii)
  • 4. a. Primary sector
  • 5. a. Ratzel
  • 6. c. Possibilism
  • 7. a. Solid wastes
  • 8. d. Both the statements are correct
  • 9. a. NW- 5 501 Km
  • 10. d. Machinery
  • 11. a. Ehrlich
  • 12. a. Srinagar – Kanyakumari
  • 13. a. Both assertion and reason are true and reason is the correct explanation of assertion.
  • 14. b. Both assertion and reason are true but reason is not the correct explanation of assertion.
  • 15. c. Liberalisation of trade
  • 16. c. 1995
  • 17. a. Providing financial support to boost international trade.

Section-B

18.

  • (i) Television, as the means of communication, has the highest number of users.
  • (ii) Television, a powerful medium of communication, provides information and entertainment to far flung people, in audio, video and movement forms. Thus, it reaches the largest number of people in the shortest time possible.
  • (iii) Internet requires proper network for its smooth application and higher bandwidth. Therefore, the reach of internet is limited to the urban areas in India due to the lack of required infrastructural development in the rural area, the users are limited to the urban centres only.

19.

  • (i) The Hindu.
  • (ii) Tamil Nadu.
  • (iii) The quantity of the gas reserves will be known only after the completion of the survey.
  • 20. a. Vienna, Austria.
  • b. Crude petroleum.
  • c. Saudi Arabia, UAE.
  • OR
  • Six advantages of oceanic transport are:
  • 1. They offer a smooth highway traversable in all directions with less maintenance costs.
  • 2. The energy cost of water transportation is lower.
  • 3. They are the cheaper means of huge of bulky material over long distances from one continent to another.
  • 4. Very heavy cargo like coal, cement, timber, etc. can be transported through inland waterways.
  • 5. They are significant for both domestic and international transport and trade.

21. The welfare approach has the following characteristics:

  • 1. Human development takes a welfare perspective, which considers people as beneficiaries or goals of all development initiatives.
  • 2. The government is responsible for raising human development levels by increasing welfare expenditure such as education, health, housing, and sanitation.
  • 3. People are passive receivers of the benefits of human progress under this paradigm, while the government is the supplier of those benefits.

22. Mumbai is referred to be a “unique port” because of the following reasons:

  • 1. When it comes to exports and imports, Mumbai is India’s economic hub.
  • 2. It is a natural harbor with deep seas and plenty of room for large ships.
  • 3. It is India’s most important industrial and commercial center.

OR

  • India’s seaports serve as a focal point for its overseas trade.
  • 1. India’s sea port having a great influence on national integration to the world economic market.
  • 2. Ports are also important for the support of economic activities in the hinterland since they act as a crucial connection between sea and land transportation.
  • 3. In terms of load carried, waterways transportation is the cheapest and most effective transportation system as compared to other system. Ports provide loading and unloading of import and export goods.

23. The river Yamuna is one of the most polluted rivers in India and its main polluting centres are Delhi, Agra and Mathura. Following are some of the main causes behind the severe pollution in the Yamuna:

  • 1. Extraction of water for irrigation and agricultural run-off from Haryana and Uttar Pradesh.
  • 2. Sewage, domestic waste and urban run-off.
  • 3. Toxic effluents from industries.

Section-C

24. The two factors affecting tourism in the world are:

1. Demand: It is the prime factor for tourism. For last few centuries, the demand for recreational and entertainment related activities have increased significantly. For e.g. As a country grows economically, along with purchasing capacity the demand for tourism increases. Like in Middle East India and South Eastern Asia.

2. Transport: The second important factor that affects the tourism sector is transport. The development in transport sector increases the demand for tourism. The easy accessibility to tourist locations and places encourages people to move or visit there for e.g. The expansion of air and rail network in the last decade has influenced tourism in increasing the number of tourists. Apart from this, the  improvement in infrastructure as tourist spots has also increased demand for tourism.

OR

Outsourcing has resulted in the opening up of a large number of call centres in India, China, Eastern Europe, Israel, Philippines and Costa Rica. It has created new jobs in these countries. Outsourcing is coming to those countries where cheap and skilled workers are available. These are also out-migrating countries. But with the work available in the form of outsourcing, the migration from these countries has come down.

This can be explained through these examples:

  • 1. The Knowledge Processing Outsourcing (KPO) industry includes research and development, e-learning, business research, etc.
  • 2. The Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) industry involves highly skilled workers. It is information driven knowledge outsourcing.
  • 3. Data processing is another IT related service that employs large number of people in Asian countries.

25. Human geography studies the inter-relationship between the physical environment and the sociocultural
environment created by human beings through mutual interaction with each other. It attempts to explain the relationship between all elements of human life and space they occur over.

The different fields of human geography are as follows:

  • 1. Social Geography: It is a field of human geography which is connected with social sciences and sociology. Its sub-fields are behavioural geography, a geography of social wellbeing, historical, medical geography, etc.
  • 2. Urban Geography: It is a field of human geography connected with urban studies and planning.
  • 3. Political Geography: It is a field of human geography onnected with science. Its sub-fields are electoral geography, military geography, etc.
  • 4. Population Geography: It is a field of human geography connected with the demography.

26. Reasons behind high HDI index value:

  • 1. Education and healthcare are top-of-mind for governments.
  • 2. Countries with higher human development have made significant investments in the social sector.
  • 3. Effective governance.
  • 4. These nations have a low level of social variety.
  • 5. Many countries with high human development scores are in Europe and reflect the industrialized western world.

Reasons behind countries with a Medium Index Value:

  • 1. The majority of these are countries that have recently emerged as emerging nations.
  • 2. Former colonies made up some of the countries in this category.
  • 3. Since the disintegration of the former Soviet Union in 1990, several more have developed.
  • 4. Several nations have seen fast improvements in their human evelopment scores by implementing more people-oriented policies and lowering social discrimination.
  • 5. Compared to nations with higher human development scores, the majority of these countries have a substantially higher level of social variety.
  • 6. Many members of this group have experienced political unrest and social unrest at various periods in their recent histories.

Reasons behind countries with a Low Index Value:

  • 1. Small countries make up a substantial percentage of this group.
  • 2. These have experienced political and social unrest in the form of civil war, famine, or a high prevalence of illnesses. This group’s human development needs must be addressed immediately by well-thought-out policies.
  • 3. Some statements persuade people to believe that low levels are caused by culture, religion, or community.
  • 4. Countries with low levels of human development spend more on defense than on social services. This demonstrates that these countries are prone to political instability and have failed to launch rapid economic growth.
  • OR

1. Income Approach: This is one of the most ancient techniques for human growth. Income is thought to be a factor in human development. The concept is that an individual’s amount of freedom is reflected in their income, the more is one’s income, the higher is one’s degree of development.

2. Welfare Approach: Human beings are viewed as beneficiaries or goals of all development initiatives in this perspective. The strategy advocates increased government spending on education, health, social services, and amenities.

People are just passive beneficiaries of progress rather than active participants. The government is in charge of raising human development levels through maximizing welfare spending.

3. Basic Need Approach: The International Labour Organization (ILO) was the first to propose this strategy. Six fundamental requirements were identified, i.e., health, education, food, water supply, sanitation, and shelter. The issue of personal choice is neglected, and the focus is on meeting the fundamental requirements of specified groups.

4. The Capability Approach: The key to enhancing human development is to improve human capacities in the areas of health, education, and resource access.

27. In India, development is marked by social discrimination and regional disparity. Present development has not been able to address the issues of social justice, regional imbalance and environment degradations. Development has effect on deteriorating human conditions. Environmental pollution of air, soil and water have not only led to the tragedy of commons but also have threatened the existence of our society.

Thus, development in India is a mixed bag of opportunities as well as neglect and deprivations.

  • 1. Few metropolitans with small section of population have modern facilities.
  • 2. Large rural areas and slums in the urban areas do not have basic amenities.
  • 3. Different sections of the society do not have opportunities of development.
  • 4. Majority of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, landless agricultural labourers, poor farmers, are the most marginalised lot.
  • 5. A large segment of female population is the worst sufferer among all.

28. Landfill is the disposal of refuse and other waste material by burying it and covering it over with soil. It has evolved as one of the most disastrous  environmental practice for the unplanned expanding urban centres. It is an inappropriate and unsustainable method of waste disposal, especially in urban India.
There are mainly three important reasons why landfill is not a sustainable method of waste disposal:

1. The landfill comprises of a variety of material like household garbage, plastic, wood, metal, paper, etc. where each material has a different rate of decomposition which eventually results in an uneven surface of the landfill.

2. The waste releases harmful fumes, toxin sand leachate formed when decaying rubbish produces weak acidic chemicals combined with liquids, which contaminates the groundwater, further increasing the water pollution.

3. The microbiome of the soil, which is essential for growth of flora, is destroyed due to the toxic fumes from the waste in the landfill.

Section-D

  • 29. A. Geneva (Switzerland)
  • B. Aden
  • C. Kriovoi Rog
  • D. Denmark
  • E. Scunthorpe
  • F. Velds
  • G. Rio De Janeiro
  • 30. A. Goa
  • B. Mathura
  • C. Mangaluru
  • D. Arunanchal Pradesh
  • E. Digboi
  • F. Andhra Pradesh
  • G. Kendujhar

CBSE 36 Sample Question Papers Humanities Stream

All Subjects Combined for Class 12 Exam 2023

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