There are 17 questions in this section. All are mandatory.
21. The welfare approach has the following characteristics:
22. Mumbai is referred to be a “unique port” because of the following reasons:
23. The river Yamuna is one of the most polluted rivers in India and its main polluting centres are Delhi, Agra and Mathura. Following are some of the main causes behind the severe pollution in the Yamuna:
24. The two factors affecting tourism in the world are:
1. Demand: It is the prime factor for tourism. For last few centuries, the demand for recreational and entertainment related activities have increased significantly. For e.g. As a country grows economically, along with purchasing capacity the demand for tourism increases. Like in Middle East India and South Eastern Asia.
2. Transport: The second important factor that affects the tourism sector is transport. The development in transport sector increases the demand for tourism. The easy accessibility to tourist locations and places encourages people to move or visit there for e.g. The expansion of air and rail network in the last decade has influenced tourism in increasing the number of tourists. Apart from this, the improvement in infrastructure as tourist spots has also increased demand for tourism.
Outsourcing has resulted in the opening up of a large number of call centres in India, China, Eastern Europe, Israel, Philippines and Costa Rica. It has created new jobs in these countries. Outsourcing is coming to those countries where cheap and skilled workers are available. These are also out-migrating countries. But with the work available in the form of outsourcing, the migration from these countries has come down.
This can be explained through these examples:
25. Human geography studies the inter-relationship between the physical environment and the sociocultural
environment created by human beings through mutual interaction with each other. It attempts to explain the relationship between all elements of human life and space they occur over.
The different fields of human geography are as follows:
26. Reasons behind high HDI index value:
Reasons behind countries with a Medium Index Value:
Reasons behind countries with a Low Index Value:
1. Income Approach: This is one of the most ancient techniques for human growth. Income is thought to be a factor in human development. The concept is that an individual’s amount of freedom is reflected in their income, the more is one’s income, the higher is one’s degree of development.
2. Welfare Approach: Human beings are viewed as beneficiaries or goals of all development initiatives in this perspective. The strategy advocates increased government spending on education, health, social services, and amenities.
People are just passive beneficiaries of progress rather than active participants. The government is in charge of raising human development levels through maximizing welfare spending.
3. Basic Need Approach: The International Labour Organization (ILO) was the first to propose this strategy. Six fundamental requirements were identified, i.e., health, education, food, water supply, sanitation, and shelter. The issue of personal choice is neglected, and the focus is on meeting the fundamental requirements of specified groups.
4. The Capability Approach: The key to enhancing human development is to improve human capacities in the areas of health, education, and resource access.
27. In India, development is marked by social discrimination and regional disparity. Present development has not been able to address the issues of social justice, regional imbalance and environment degradations. Development has effect on deteriorating human conditions. Environmental pollution of air, soil and water have not only led to the tragedy of commons but also have threatened the existence of our society.
Thus, development in India is a mixed bag of opportunities as well as neglect and deprivations.
28. Landfill is the disposal of refuse and other waste material by burying it and covering it over with soil. It has evolved as one of the most disastrous environmental practice for the unplanned expanding urban centres. It is an inappropriate and unsustainable method of waste disposal, especially in urban India.
There are mainly three important reasons why landfill is not a sustainable method of waste disposal:
1. The landfill comprises of a variety of material like household garbage, plastic, wood, metal, paper, etc. where each material has a different rate of decomposition which eventually results in an uneven surface of the landfill.
2. The waste releases harmful fumes, toxin sand leachate formed when decaying rubbish produces weak acidic chemicals combined with liquids, which contaminates the groundwater, further increasing the water pollution.
3. The microbiome of the soil, which is essential for growth of flora, is destroyed due to the toxic fumes from the waste in the landfill.
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