Oswal 36 Sample Question Papers CBSE Class 12 History Solutions
Short Answer Type Questions
21. The important functions of the six sub-committee were:
- The firs one looked after the management of the navy. The second looked after the transportationsystem and the third took care of the foot soldiers.
- The fourth secured the management of the horse and the fifth oversaw the management of thechariots. The sixth committee looked after the management of the elephants.
22. Al-Biruni was aware of the problems that he could face during his travel. He felt that many barriersobstructed his understanding. These barriers were:
- The firs barrier was that of the language. He found a lot of differenc between Sanskrit and Arabicor Persian. He found it hard to translate ideas and concepts of one language into another.
- Secondly, he found a lot of differenc in religious beliefs and practices.
- The third barrier was the self-absorption and insularity of the local population.
23. The annexation of Awadh displaced not just the Nawab, but it also dispossessed the taluqdars of the region. Before the coming of the British, the taluqdars maintained armed men, built forts, and enjoyed a degree of autonomy.
- The countryside of Awadh was dotte with the estates and forts of the taluqdars who were now disarmed and their forts destroyed.
- The firs British revenue settlement known as the Summary Settlemen of 1856, was based on the assumption that the taluqdars were interlopers with no permanent stakes in land.
- The Summary Settlemen proceeded to remove the taluqdars, wherever possible.
- Amidst the communal frenzy, violence and bloodbath following the Direct Action Day, Gandhiji tried his best to put into effect his lifelong principal of non-violence to win people’s hearts like a one-man army.
- Gandhiji walked barefoot through the riot-hit areas and made heroic attempts to reassure the minorities and ensure safe passages by building mutual trust in villages of Noakhali in East Bengal and Bihar and in the slums of Calcutta (Kolkata) and Delhi.
- Gandhiji returned to Calcutta (Kolkata) on the eve of 15th August. He persuaded Suhrawardy to stay with him in the riot-hit Beliaghata.
25. The Harappan civilisation covered parts of Punjab, Haryana, Sind, Baluchistan, Gujarat, Rajasthan, and the fringes of Western Uttar Pradesh. It extended from Jammu in the North to the Narmada estuary in the South. In the West, its extended from the Makran Coast in Baluchistan to Meerut in the East.
The geographical extent of the Harappan civilisation was much larger than that of the Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilisations. The coastal settlements of the civilisation extended from Sutkagan Dor in Baluchistan to Lothal in Gujarat. The largest number of Harappan sites have been excavated in Gujarat, Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, and Jammu and Kashmir.
There was a definite break between the Early and Mature Harappan phases. Evidence suggests that some of the Early Harappan settlements were burnt down. Some Early Harappan settlements might also have been abandoned. Therefore, archaeological evidence suggests that there was a long break between the two phases. The Mature Harappan sites were far numerous as compared to the Early Harappan settlements. For example, in Sind, 52 Early Harappan sites have been discovered. On the
other hand, in the Mature Harappan phase, 65 sites on old settlements and 43 sites on new settlements have come to light.
26. Apart from the intensively cultivated provinces in northern and north-western India, huge swathes of forest (jangal) or scrubland – existed all over eastern India, central India, northern India.
- Forest dwellers were termed ‘jangli’ in contemporary texts.
- The term described those whose livelihood came from the gathering of forest produce, hunting and shifting agriculture.
- Among the Bhils, spring was reserved for collecting forest produce, summer for fishing, the monsoon months for cultivation, and autumn and winter for hunting.
- For the state, the forest was a subversive place – a place of refuge for troublemakers.
Revenue from the land was the economic mainstay of the Mughal Empire.
- It was very important for the state to create an administrative structure to ensure control over agricultural production and fix the revenue.
- Diwan was responsible for supervision of the fiscal system of the empire.
- Administration used to assess the land and its production before imposing the tax.
- The land revenue arrangements consisted of two stages – first, assessment and then actual
collection. The jama was the amount assessed, as opposed to hasil, the amount collected.
- While fixing revenue, the attempt of the state was to maximise its claims.
Long Answer Type Questions
27. The seven means of acquiring wealth for the men are:
Several methods were used by the Brahamanas for attaining legitimacy for the Varna system. Some of them are:
28. Sufi were the religious-minded people generally belonging to Islam that started following the path of asceticism and mysticism against the orthodoxy of the Islamic Caliphate. Some of their ideas were:
- They were against the growing materialism of the Islamic Caliphate in religious and political matters.
- They also showed resistance against the dogmatic definition and interpretation of the Quran and Sharia by the Ulamas and other religious theologians.
- They emphasised the love and devotion to God for achieving salvation.
- They regarded Prophet Muhammad as the perfect human being who showed deep love to the Almighty. People should also show immense faith in God and bestow their love for Him.
- The Sufi wanted to seek interpretation of the Quran, based on their personal experience.
After the death of the Sheikh, the following events took place:
- The tomb shrine or the Dargah of the sheikh became the centre of devotion for his followers.
- The practice of pilgrimage started on the occasion of the death anniversary of the saints at these places.
- There was belief that after the death, the soul of the saints used to unify with God.
- People used to take the blessings of God for spiritual and material benefits.
- The Sufi saints enjoyed a very high status among the common people as well as the ruling elites.
29. On the declaration of the Objectives Resolution, Pandit Nehru put forward the vision for the future Constitution of India.
- Pandit Nehru mentioned the American Constitution in his speech that was formed by the founding fathers of America nearly 170 years ago.
- He took the reference of the French Constitution that was formed during the French Revolution of 1789 and the difficulties that were faced by the members that deliberated for it.
- The third constitution mentioned by him was of Russia that led to the formation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
- Nehru mentioned the success and the failure of all these constitutions and the lessons that can be learned from them.
- He refused to blindly follow the constitution of any country and opened the door for deliberations and debates.
Somnath Lahiri had a lot of apprehensions about the Constituent Assembly as he think that it was having a lot of British influence. Some of the points that he mentioned were:
- The Interim Government of India had to work in the shadow of the Viceroy and the British government due to which the independence of the Constituent Assembly was questioned by him.
- He questioned the fact that the British would interfere in the process of deliberations in the Assembly and would seek to devise policies favourable to them.
- The British controlled the army and also had the intention of accepting the Partition of India if necessary.
- He believed that the Constituent Assembly should start working only after India attain complete independence.
Source Based Questions
- The Buddhist texts provided with glimpses of the lively discussions and debates that were conducted by different schools of thought.
- Many of the teachers of different schools of thought such as Mahavira and Buddha challenged the authority of the Vedas and the social order established by them.
- The men and women can attain liberation through the trials and tribulations of worldly existence. This philosophy challenged the rahmanical view according to which individual’s existence is determined by birth.
- The tank was constructed at the mouth of two hills.
- The water could have come from either of the two hills and the water reservoir was built where the two mountains met. It helped in the accumulation of water from whichever hill it came. Besides, water was brought from a distance through pipes.
- Water was supplied from the reservoir to Hampinagar. Except this, water was used to irrigate their gardens and rice fields.
- The East India Company was given the monopoly to trade with India and China by the Royal Charter. Due to this, other private traders and businessmen were not able to find a good market for their products. This led to resistance against the East India Company’s monopoly over trade.
- Many political groups thought that the administration of the East India Company was beneficial for the Company itself and not for Britain as a whole. The information about mismanagement and flaw in Company’s administration was widely spread in Britain.
- The press highlighted the issues related to the greed of the East India Company officials and the corruption in administrative matters, the press led to the increase in the negative connotation of the East India Company in Bengal.
Map Based Question
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