Physical Education Unsolved Sample Paper Solutions CBSE Class 12

Section-A

  • 1. (b) Harvard step test
  • 2. (c) Fats
  • 3. (b) Scoliosis
  • 4. (c) Lateral curve in the spine
  • 5. (b) Niacin
  • 6. (c) Vitamin K
  • 7. (b) the small intestine
  • 8. (a) Trikonasana and Ardh Chakrasana
  • 9. (b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
  • 10. (b) Not standing for a long time
  • 11. (c) Calorie
  • 12. (b) 4 minutes
  • 13. (b) The foot moves upwards towards the rear of the calf.
  • 14. (c) Both (a) and (b)
  • 15. (b) Zig Zag Run
  • 16. (d) 1–C, 2–A, 3–D, 4–B
  • 17. (d) 1–B, 2–A, 3–C18
  • 18. (a) Round Robin tournament

Section-B

19. Strain is an injury to muscle or tendon. Tendons are fibrous cords of tissue that attach muscles to the bone.Strains often occur in foot, leg (typically the hamstring) or back. It is a type of soft tissue injury.

20. Active flexibility focuses on improving soft tissue extensibility and increasing neuromuscular control. Itincludes foam rolling (self- myofascial release) as well as active – isolated stretching.

21. Two isometric exercises for shoulder region are:

(i) Pushing against the wall.

(ii) Holding push up position.

22. In sports, aggression means an intention to harm or injure a player outside the rules of game so as to gaina competitive advantage or late tackling to stop an opponent from scoring.

23. It is an immediate care given to an injured or ill person. It does not take the place of proper medicaltreatment. It is a temporary assistance before actual medical care is obtained.

24. Hypertension means the increased blood pressure. It may eventually cause health problems such as heart diseases.

Section-C

25. Benefits of exercises for circulatory system are:

(i) Heart size increases: The size of heart and strength of the cardiac muscles increase due to regularexercises as to the maximum extent the left ventricle adapts. The walls of the heart develop intostronger and thicker as shown in recent studies and the thickness of myocardial wall increases aswell.

(ii) Resting heart rate decreases: The resting heart rate decreases due to regular exercises. After durationof 10 week training programme, the resting heart rate may reduce up to 30 beats per minute from the normal of 72 beats per minute. The heart becomes more efficient due to regular exercises. ln highly
conditioned athletes the resting heart rate decreases to 30 beats/minute.

(iii) Stroke volume increases at resting conditions: The stroke volume increases at resting conditions due to regular exercises. The stroke volume at rest remains up to 50–70 ml/beat in untrained individuals; in trained individuals it ranges from 70–90 ml/beat and in the elite endurance athletes it ranges from 90–110 ml/beat.

26. It is the immediate care given to an injured or ill person. It does not take the place of proper medical treatment. It is a temporary assistance before actual medical care is obtained.

Management of joint injuries:

  • (i) Cold compression should be used immediately. The application of ice or cold water should not be used for more than 40 minutes persistently.
  • (ii) The cold compression should be performed 5 to 6 times daily.
  • (iii) If there is more swelling at the sight of contusion, the anti-inflammatory medicine should be given.
  • (iv) If the swelling persists, consult the doctor immediately.
  • (v) For the purpose of rehabilitation, the flexibility exercises should be performed carefully.

27. Dynamic strength is of following types:

  • (i) Maximum Strength: In a single muscular contraction it is the ability of muscle to contract over resistance of utmost intensity of stimulus. The most excellent examples are weight lifting and throwing events in track and field.
  • (ii) Explosive Strength: It can be stated as the ability to prevail over resistance by means of high speed. It combines strength and speed abilities and based on the nature of the blend of strength and speed, the explosive strength can be sub-divided further into start strength, power and speed strength.
  • (iii) Strength Endurance: Similar to explosive strength, it is a result of two motor abilities as well. Under conditions of fatigue, it is the ability to work against resistance. Depending on the actuality whether the movement is static or dynamic, strength endurance can be in form of static or dynamic strength. The strength endurance can be divided further into proper strength endurance and strength endurance depending on the kind of the blend of strength and endurance.

28. Asanas play an important role to prevent the lifestyle related diseases. The advantages are as follows:

  • (i) Maintain Weight: Nowadays, obesity has become a challenging problem for the society. By doing asanas daily, we exercise entire organs of our body. By practising asanas regularly, it burns the excess fat of the body, and hence maintains healthy weight.
  • (ii) Normalize Endocrine Function: Diabetes is one of the most common lifestyle related diseases. Diabetes occurs due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin or the cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced. The asanas like Bhujangasana, Paschimotanasana, Pavanmuktasana, Ardha-Matsyendrasana etc., help to stimulate and regulate pancreas to produce insulin which helps to maintain glucose level in the body.
  • (iii) Respiratory Efficiency Increases: Asthma is a common lifestyle related disease. It occurs due to narrowing of trachea, due to which oxygen supply to lungs and body is compromised. Asanas help in maintaining the trachea wide open, increase the lungs capacity and blood flow to lungs. Thus, oxygen supply is maintained and asthmatic episodes are reduced and respiratory efficiency is increased.
  • (iv) Regulate Blood Flow: Yoga or Asanas regulate blood flow in the body and help to maintain a constant blood pressure. They help the body to relax and thus reduce the high blood pressure. Yoga calms down the body and the mind and thus blood pressure is normalised.

29. In a sport like Cricket, protective gears or sport gears are very vital. In recent past, it is observed that when a forceful ball hit the batsman or fielder, it might cause injuries or even death.

(a) In the game of Cricket one should protect head, arms, chest, thighs, private parts, knees, legs and feet. There are various protective gears such as helmet, batting gloves, chest guard, thigh guards, arm pads, shoulder pads, abdominal guard, leg protector, shoes, wicket keeping gloves etc. These sport gears must be of good quality. The proper protective equipments play significant role in preventing the sports injury.

(b) First aid to be provided during injury at the superficial layer of the skin is:

  • (i) Clean the affected part with fresh water.
  • (ii) Use clean sterilised gauze to wipe the affected part.
  • (iii) Antiseptic ointment should be used.
  • (iv) Refer to the doctor in case of serious injury.

30. The Causes of Flat Foot are:

(a) In the game of Cricket one should protect head, arms, chest, thighs, private parts, knees, legs and feet. There are various protective gears such as helmet, batting gloves, chest guard, thigh guards, arm pads, shoulder pads, abdominal guard, leg protector, shoes, wicket keeping gloves etc. These sport gears must be of good quality. The proper protective equipments play significant role in preventing the sports injury.

  • (i) The faulty posture (habitual standing on one leg or walking for long periods with the feet in extreme eversion position).
  • (ii) Long or continuous weight bearing and being over-weight may lead to flat foot.
  • (iii) Improper shoes or footwear.
  • (iv) Weakness or paralysis of the tibialis anterior or posterior muscle.
  • (v) Secondary reasons like Knock-knee and scoliosis may lead to this deformity.
  • (vi) Injuries particularly to the lower leg ankle or foot may lead to flat foot.

Section-D

  • 31. (a) Harvard step test
  • (b) Cardio Vascular Endurance or Respiratory endurance
  • (c) Oxygen
  • (d) At rest
  • OR
  • 12 Minutes
  • 32. (a) Matsayasana
  • (b) Hatha
  • (c) Fish
  • (d) This asana helps to relieve respiratory problems by promoting the right method of breathing.
  • OR
  • Heart diseases
  • 33. (a) Isotonic
  • (b) Isotonic contraction
  • (c) Light rhythmic exercises
  • (d) Two

Section-E

34. A. Isometric Exercises: They are the exercises in which muscular tension is built without any visible movement of muscle being used. Contraction during such an exercise is called isometric contraction. Work done during isometric exercise is zero. Isometric exercises are practiced by pushing or pulling an immovable object like a wall or bar anchored to the floor. Isometric exercise increases muscle tension significantly but fails to change the length of the muscles. Today, it is primarily used for rehabilitation purposes.

  • Examples:
  • (i) Balancing on one foot.
  • (ii) Pressing against the wall.
  • (iii) Standing with heavy load on head.
  • (iv) Maintaining a sitting posture without a chair.
  • (v) Holding a weight at arm’s length.
  • (vi) Attempting to lift an immoveable object.

B. Isotonic Exercises: Exercises where we can see movement of an object on application of force are called Isotonic exercises and contraction of the muscle during such an exercise is called isotonic contraction. Isotonic exercises are carried out against a fixed resistance. As each muscle moves through its complete range, isotonic contraction creates tension with maximum effort at the beginning and end of each exercise. Two types of muscular contraction take place while performing isotonic exercise–they are concentric contraction in which length of the muscle decreases from normal size and eccentric contraction in which length of the muscle increases from normal size.

  • Examples:
  • (i) Light rhythmic exercises
  • (ii) Running downhill
  • (iii) Sit-ups and push up
  • (iv) Lifting free weights, like dumb-bells and barbells
  • (v) Hammer throw
  • (vi) Triple Jump
  • (vii) Landing on the ground after a jump

C. Isokinetic Exercises: These are the exercises in which speed remains same throughout the range of movement. It can be also called as a combination of isometric and isotonic contraction. Isokinetic exercise uses a machine that controls the speed of contraction within the range of motion. Cybex and Biodex machines provide this kind of workout, but these machines are generally used by physiotherapists and not readily available to most of the people. Exercises which are similar to isokinetic exercise in sports activity are:

  • (i) Ice skating
  • (ii) Chin ups
  • (iii) Rope climbing
  • (iv) Rowing
  • (v) Swimming

35. Endurance refers to the body’s ability to continue using muscular strength and endure repeated contractions for an extended period of time. It is essential in exercise and when doing heavy tasks as it allows the muscles to perform for long periods of time without becoming tired. There are various methods of its
development. Some are as follows:35. Endurance refers to the body’s ability to continue using muscular strength and endure repeated contractions for an extended period of time. It is essential in exercise and when doing heavy tasks as it allows the muscles to perform for long periods of time without becoming tired. There are various methods of its development. Some are as follows:

(i) Continuous Training: Continuous training is a type of sports training that involves activity of moderate intensity with a duration of more than 15 minutes with resting intervals. It is the most common type of training and is for maintaining general health and wellbeing. Generally, this type of training is used to prepare the body for sustained workouts such as marathons and triathlons, but can also be effective for more casual athletes. It allows the body to work from its aerobic energy
stored to improve overall fitness and endurance. Chief benefits of continuous training include fat burning, muscle building, and increasing maximum aerobic potential.

(ii) Interval Training: Interval training involves periods of hard work followed by a timed period of rest, repeated several times in one training session. The periods of hard work are called high intensity activity. Rest can be active (walking, jogging etc). An example of interval training is 10 fast runs over 40 metres, with two minutes rest between each run. Variables to consider during interval training are distance/duration of activity, intensity of activity, duration of rest, activity during rest, number of sets, and frequency of training. By varying any of these variables athletes can be progressively overloaded. This form of training also increases fitness levels for people involved in exercises.

(iii) Fartlek Training: Fartlek, which means “speed play” in Swedish, is a training method that blends continuous training with interval training. The variable intensity and continuous nature of the exercise places stress on both the aerobic and anaerobic systems. It differs from traditional interval training as it is unstructured; intensity and/or speed vary, as the athlete wishes. Fartlek training can be used to improve both the aerobic and anaerobic systems by mixing moderate activity with bursts of speed.

36. As this pose is easy and can be practiced at any time of the day and by anyone, it has many benefits to the extent of healing ailments. This pose is used out of habit by yogis for meditative purposes.

  • Benefits of Vajrasana are:
  • (i) Heals body: The end of the spinal column (meru danda) is so beautifully placed on the heels giving the body a great looking posture and helps in transporting the prana smoothly to the entire body. This flow of prana is the first stage to heal the body from within.
  • (ii) Increases flexibility in ankles: The ankles are bent so well giving room for greater flexibility right up to the tips of the toes.
  • (iii) Improves blood circulation: The folding of the knees and the thighs stretches these muscles and improves blood circulation and improves flexibility.
  • (iv) Strengthens pelvic muscles: In this pose as the spine is elevated away from the floor, the flow of blood is altered along with the nervous impulses in the pelvic region and pelvic muscles are strengthened.
  • (v) Improves digestion: As this is one of the few yoga poses which can be practiced even after a meal, it is considered as a good way to help in digestion and increases the efficiency of the digestive system.
  • Contraindications of Vajrasana are:
  • (i) Injured ankles or knees ligaments: This pose can be hard on the knees and the ankles if one is not flexible with these muscles and joints. This pose should not be practiced if one is suffering from injured ligaments at the ankles or at the knees.
  • (ii) Hernia or Ulcers: Those suffering from hernia or intestinal ulcers should take medical advice and guidance before practicing this and should perform this pose with a trained yoga teacher. The pressure on the anus in this pose may bring unwanted pressure to the intestine.
  • (iii) Runners with hamstring or calf injury: Runners should avoid this if they have injury in their hamstrings or the calves.
  • (iv) Arthritis in knees: Not to be practiced by people who have severe arthritis of the knees.

37. (i) Endomorphic: An endomorphic somatotype is also known as a viscerotonic. The characteristic traits of this somatotype usually includes being relaxed, tolerant, comfortable, and sociable. Psychologically, they are also fun-loving, good humoured, even-tempered, and they love food and affection. The Endomorph is physically “round”. They have wide hips and narrow shoulders that give a pear-shape. They tend to have a lot of extra fat on their body and on their arms and thighs. They have skinny ankles and wrists that make the rest of their body look even bigger.

(ii) Ectomorphic: An ectomorph is the complete opposite of the endomorph. Physically, they have narrow shoulders, thin legs and arms, little fat on the body, a narrow face and a narrow chest. They may eat just as much as the endomorph but never seem to gain any weight. They always stay skinny. Personality wise, they tend to be self-conscious, socially anxious, artistic, thoughtful, quiet, and private. They always keep to themselves and are afraid to branch out.

(iii) Mesomorphic: The mesomorph is in between the endomorph and thin ectomorph. They have an attractive and desirable body. Physically, they tend to have a large head and broad shoulders with a narrow waist. They have a strong muscular body and strong arms and legs and little fat on their body. They work for the body they have so that they could have an attractive body. Psychologically, the mesomorph is adventurous and courageous. They are not afraid to break out and do new things with new people. They are assertive.

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