Oswal 36 Sample Question Papers CBSE Class 12 Physical Education Solutions
1. (d) SuptaVajarasana
Derived from Sanskrit, supta means "reclining," vajra means "thunderbolt" and asana means "pose." In this pose, the yogi begins in vajrasana then holds the feet and places the elbows on the floor as the torso bends backward until the arms, back and head rest on the floor. The pose is held for 30 seconds.
2. (b) Isotonic
Isotonic exercise is movement that requires muscles to resist weight over a range of motion, causing a change to the length of the muscle.
3. (a) Neuroticism
Neuroticism is a trait that reflects a person's level of emotional stability. It is often defined as a negative personality trait involving negative emotions, poor self-regulation (an inability to manage urges), trouble dealing with stress, a strong reaction to perceived threats, and the tendency to complain.
4. (c) Bulimia nervosa
Bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder that causes you to eat large amounts of food at one time (binge) and then get rid of it (purge). The physical, behavioural and emotional symptoms vary.
5. (a) Both (A) and (R) are true and(R) is the correct explanation of (A)
Special Olympics are the world’s largest sports organisation. More than 4.4 billion athletes are involved in this in 170 countries. Thus both assertion and reason are true and reason is the correct explanation of assertion.
6. (c) To assess the speed and coordination of the limp movement
The aim of this test is to assess the coordination of arm activity and speed by measuring the time for the dominant hand to touch two-disc 80 cm apart 25 times while the other hand is fixed between the two disc.
7. (b) Mass
Acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force acting upon the object, and inversely proportional to the mass of the object.
8. (c) Deaflympics
The Deaflympics, also known as Deaflympiad (previously called World Games for the Deaf, and International Games for the Deaf) are a periodic series of multi-sport events sanctioned by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) at which Deaf athletes compete at an elite level.
9. (c) 3 1 4 2
10. (b) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
Lower the centre of gravity more the stability of the object. When the centre of gravity is closer to the base, it is more difficult to topple a body as most of the weight will be concentrated near the base. Thus both assertion and reason are true but reason is not the correct explanation of the assertion.
11. (d) William Herbert Sheldon
William Herbert Sheldon declared that there were three basic body types that correlated with personalities: the ectomorph, a skinny, scared and shy person; the endomorph, a round, happy and genial person; and the mesomorph, a muscular, outgoing and often attractive person.
12. (b) Speed Play
Fartlek training is a kind of running, training which involves random variations in speed and intensity, alternating between bursts of sprinting and slower 'recovery' jogging.
13. (c) Sprain
A sprain is an injury to the ligaments around a joint. Ligaments are strong, flexible fibers that hold bones together. When a ligament is stretched too far or tears, the joint will become painful and swell.
14. (d) Purvottanasana
Purvottanasana is a balancing asana that is empowering, energizing and strengthening. The name comes from the Sanskrit purva, meaning “east,” uttana, meaning “intense stretch,” and asana, meaning “pose.
15. (d) Sit and reach test
The sit and reach test are the most common of all flexibility tests. It measures the flexibility of the client’s lower back and hamstrings. All you need is a box about 30 cm high and a meter ruler. Your client should sit on the floor with their back and head against a wall.
16. (b) 60 min/day
The average time of physical activity recommended by ‘WHO’ for healthy children and youth between 5 to 17 of age irrespective of gender, race, ethnicity or socio-economic status is 60 min/day.
17. (b) 20
BMI is calculated as:
Weight (Kg)/[height]2 (m2) = 45/1.50 × 1.50 = 20
Thus, the BMI of the person will be 20.
18. (c) Rikli and Jones test
Rikli and Jones test was developed in 2001 at California State University, Fullerton. The Rikli and Jones Senior Citizen Physical Test describes simple and effective tests to assess aerobic fitness, strength, and flexibility in older persons using minimum and inexpensive equipment.
19. A bye means that a team does not have to participate in the first round of the tournament, but instead gets a free pass or advances to the second round.
3 Teams = 4 minus 3 (1 bye)
5 Teams = 8 minus 5 (3 byes)
9 Teams = 16 minus 9 (7 byes)
20 Teams = 32 minus 20 (12 byes)
Example Knock out fixture for 19 teams
Total number of Byes
= Next power of two – Total Teams
= 32 – 19 = 13 byes
Number of teams in upper half
= (N + 1)/2 = (19 + 1)/2 = 10 Teams
Number of teams in lower half
= (N – 1)/2 = (19 – 1)/2 = 9 Teams
Byes should be allotted in the fixture on the following ways:
(i) First bye should be given to last team of Lower Half.
(ii) Second bye should be given to first team of Upper Half.
(iii) Third bye should be given to first team of Lower Half.
(iv) Fourth bye should be given to last team of Upper Half.
(v) Same order should be followed after fourth bye till the remaining byes have been given.
20. Fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the fat cells and as the name suggests, these vitamins require fat in order to be absorbed. Vitamin A, D, E and K are fat-soluble vitamins. The best sources of fat-soluble vitamins include: Vitamin A: Found in potato, carrots, pumpkins, spinach, beef and eggs. Vitamin D:
Found in fortified milk and other dairy products.
21. Benefits of Bhujangasana are:
(i) In Bhujangasana, the spine receives a good backward stretch. Each vertebra is pulled back and provided with rich blood supply. The nerves and muscles or the spine are rejuvenated.
(ii) This asana also gives a stretch to upper back (thoracic vertebrae), opens the chest and increases the lung capacity. It is also helpful to relieve chronic asthma problems.
(iii) This asana decreases stiffness of the lower back and increases flexibility.
(iv) It strengthens the arms and shoulders. It tones the buttock muscles.
22. Levers in our body are formed from bones, joints and muscles. A lever consists of: a rigid structure (bone) a force acting upon it (muscle) to produce a turning movement (angular motion) a fulcrum which is a fixed point (joint).
There are 3 classes of levers:
(i) First-class levers are ones that have the fulcrum placed between the load and effort.
(ii) Second-class levers are ones that have load in between the fulcrum and effort.
(iii) Third-class levers are ones that have effort in between the fulcrum and load.
23. A female athlete who focuses on being thin or lightweight may eat too little or exercise too much. Doing this can cause long-term damage to health or it can also hurt athletic performance or make it necessary to limit or stop exercise. Three interrelated illnesses may develop when a girl or young woman goes to extremes in dieting or exercise. Together, these conditions are known as the “Female Athlete Triad.”
The procedure for Harvard Step test is:
(i) The test subject repeatedly steps onto and off of a platform in a cycle of two seconds.
(ii) The height of the platform is 20 inches or 51 centimetres for men and 16 inches or 41 centimetres for women.
(iii) The rate of 30 steps per minute must be sustained for five minutes or until exhaustion.
24. Staffing means employing and deploying personal at various positions. It involves creating vacancies, making recruitment and appointing personal. In its wider dimension, staffing covers orientation, training, development and placement of personnel. It may refer to those behavioural mechanisms both formal and informal through which all employees, from top to work in close cooperation.
Functional responsibilities in a project type organisation structure define event management staffing requirements. The importance of team structure, experience, background and expertise of team members plays a crucial role in event management. It is the size and the resource availability in the events enterprise that to an extent defines the exact role of the staff members. In the management of events manpower with various expertise are required to manage diversified activities. In a big firm, there is more scope for specialised functional personnel with limited functional responsibilities, whereas, in a small firm, there is a fusion of roles depending purely on the availability of time and staff.
25. Nutrition is the science of foods which deals with the dynamic process in which the food constituent is
digested, nutrients are absorbed and distributed to the tissues for utilisation and wastes are disposed of
from the body.
The non- nutritive components of diet are:
(i) Fiber or roughage: It is the dietary fiber which help to clean out the digestive track and bowel and prevents infection and diseases. Examples are fruits and grains.
(ii) Artificial sweeteners: It is the best substitute of sugar less calorie and carbohydrates. Waterprevents dehydration, helps in the removal of byproducts of cell metabolism.
(iii) Colour Compounds: It makes food more attractive and presentable.
(iv) Flavour Compounds: It develops better taste of the food.
(v) Plant Compounds: They have non-nutritive values and also contain colours and Flavours.
26. Asthma disease is associated with the swelling of respiratory tracts, which makes the tracts very sensitive
and makes this process pungent with the touch of any effective things. These reactions cause contractions
in the tubes, this reduces the amount of air in the lungs due to which it becomes difficult to breathe.
Common symptoms of asthma are coughing, heavy breathing, chest tightness, fatigue, pain in hands,
feet, shoulders and back. Reasons are dust, smoke, pollen grains, animal skin, hair and feather etc.
Asthma can be controlled by Matsyasana, Gomukhasana etc.
Matsyasana: This asana is performed in water body; hence it is called as Matsyasana.
Pre-Stage: Sit in Padmasana pose.
(i) Take support of your elbow and lie on your back, bend your neck with support of your hands and try to touch your head to the ground.
(ii) Hold toes of the feet firmly with both hands and touch ground with the elbows.
(iii) Stretch the stomach as up as possible.
(i) This asana is very useful for asthma patient, it provides relief from indigestion and other digestive problems, keeps the blood clean.
(ii) Helps in cough and respiratory problems. It makes body and face attractive by bringing natural glow on it.
27. By adopting the following strategies the physical activities can be made accessible for the CWSN:
(i) Equipment: The equipment used should be according to capability and level of children. It may vary in size, shape, colour and weight.
(ii) Specific Environment: A healthy and democratic environment shall be created so that CWSN can perform freely.
(iii) Modified Rules: According to CWSN, the rules shall be diluted and modified according to their nature of disability.
28. “Sports injuries” are the types of injuries that occur during participating in sports or competition, training sessions or sports activities. One of the important objectives of sports medicine is preventing injuries. It also prevents other physical, mental, social and financial harm accompanying sports injuries. General techniques that can prevent sports injuries are:
- Warm-up and Cool-down: A well-structured warm-up and cool-down is necessary to increase blood and nutrient flow and concentration. Also, it helps in relaxation, improved flexibility and recovery of muscles.
- Planning a Session: Careful planning of training and rehabilitation sessions allow gradual specific adaptations. It reduces the damage to the tissues as a result of training.
- Using Protective Equipment: The use of protective equipment like proper footwear’s, helmets, goggles, gum shield, shin pads and gloves prevent many sports injuries.
- Psychological Training: Some form of mental skills training and practice could reduce injuries by reducing anxiety and improving concentration.
- Adherence to the Rules: If all performers are aware of and adhere to the rules and laws of the particular sport, then injuries can be reduced to great extent.
Sports training consists of shorter and longer cycles and the three cycles are:
- Micro-cycle: It is the smallest training cycle which consists of three to ten days. When the duration is seven days it is called weakly cycle. The last day of the cycle is aimed at recovery and relaxation.
- Meso-cycle: It is medium duration normally consists of three to six micro cycles a meso cycle aims at tackling a definite training task towards the aim of achieving top form at the end of the macro cycle. Normally only one or two aims are attempted in a meso-cycle.
- Macro cycle: This is the longest cycle and its duration can be from three to twelve months. During high performance training stage, a macro cycle is clearly divided into three, preparatory a competition and transition periods. In the case of single periodisation there is only one macro cycle in a year. Example: Olympic year. But in case of double or triple periodisation there are two or three macro cycles in a year.
(c) Semi finals
(d) Knock out tournament
2n – N
(a) Paralympic games
(b) 29 July 1948
(d) Rome, Italy
(a) 15 – 18
32. Posture is essentially the position of the body in space, the relationship of the body parts: head, trunk and limbs to each other. Changes in posture occur when any part of the body is moved. Posture communicates non-verbal body language, reflecting self-esteem and mental balance. The ideal posture is the state of muscular and skeletal balance.
Following are the importance of a good posture:
- Improves overall appearance and is a confidence booster. Having good posture will help you look and feel more glamorous, more alive and keep your body healthier.
- It aids indigestion.
- It strengthens, energises and revitalises the body.
- Prevents fatigue as muscles are used more efficiently.
- Helps to prevent back and neck pain. It lowers the strain level on ligaments.
- Feels good to have body in balance.
33. “A body projected into the air with a certain velocity inclined at an angle with the horizontal is usually termed as projectile.”
Factors affecting projectile trajectory
There are three parameters, in addition to gravitational acceleration, air resistance and spin that determine the trajectory of a simple projectile, such as a ball, shot or hammer. These are the projection angle, speed and height. The steepness or shallowness of the curve will depend on the angle of projection, with angles greater than 45 degree producing steeper curves and angles less than 45 degree producing shallower curves.
- Projection Angle: Projection angle is defined as the angle between the projectile’s velocity vector and the horizontal at the instant of release or take off. Hence the terms release angle or take-off angle are often used. The size of the projection angle depends on the purpose of the activity. For example, activities requiring maximum horizontal range (shot put, long jump, ski jump) tend to use smaller angles than those in which maximum height is an objective (high jump). The optimum angle for
maximum horizontal distance of flight is 45 degrees, but there are factors in sport which mean that 45 degree is rarely the optimum for maximum horizontal distance. In high jump the optimum angle is in the range of 40 to 48 degree, where the primary mechanical purpose is maximum horizontal distance the take-off angles are in the range of 18 degree to 27 degree. In the long jump, for example, take-off angles used by elite long jumpers are around 20 degrees.
- Projection speed: For a given angle projection speed at release will determine both the height and the horizontal distance of the trajectory of the object or body. It is defined as the magnitude of the projectile’s velocity vector at the instant of release or take-off. When the projection angle and height are held constant, the projection speed will determine the magnitude of a projectile’s maximum vertical displacement (its apex) and its range (maximum horizontal displacement). The greater the projection speed, the greater the apex and range.
34. Ability of the muscles to overcome the resistance or Capacity of the body to exert force or force that muscle can exert against resistance is known as strength.
Methods to improve the strength are:
- Isometric exercises: These are the exercises in which no movement takes place while force is exerted against an immovable object. It develops only tension at the joint concerned. Isometric exercise increases muscle tension significantly but fails to change the length of the muscles. Today, it is primarily used for rehabilitation purposes. It is also called static muscle contraction, e.g., Pushing against a wall.
- Isokinetic exercise: This is a type of muscle contraction where both the tension and speed are prefixed throughout the range of motion. Cybex and Biodex machines provide this kind of workout, but these machines are generally used by physical therapists and not readily available to most of the people. This process involves development of maximum tension in muscles which shortens at constant speed at all angles, e.g., Treadmill.
Mental Imagery can be used in sports to:
- Familiarise the athlete with a competition site, a racecourse, a complex play pattern or routine etc.
- Motivate the athlete by recalling images of their goals for that session, or of success in a past competition or beating a competitor in a competition.
- Perfect skills or skill sequences the athlete is learning or refining.
- Reduce negative thoughts by focusing on positive outcomes.
- Refocus the athlete when the need arises, e.g., if performer is feeling sluggish, the imagery of a previous best performance or previous best event focus can help get things back on track.
- See success where the athlete sees themselves performing skills correctly and the desired outcomes.
- Set the stage for a performance with a complete mental run-through of their performance’s key elements to set the athlete’s desired pre-competition feelings and focus.
Mental imagery should not focus on the outcome but on the actions to achieve the desired outcome.
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