Oswal 36 Sample Question Papers CBSE Class 12 Political Science Solutions
Ans. (a) Both the Assertion and the Reason are correct and the Reason is the correct explanation of the Assertion.
13. Integral humanism consists of visions which was organised around two themes:
- Mortality in politics can be a game changer.
- Swadeshi and small scale industrialisation in the economy integrating-self-reliance. It can be said, Integral Humanism revolves around the basic themes of harmony, primacy of cultural-national values and discipline
14. The UNEP stands for the United Nations Environmental Programme. It is an agency of the UN which coordinates at the organisation’s environmental activities and assists developing nations in implementing environmental policies.
15. There was opposition from several groups for the Non-Alignment policy pursued by Nehru:
- There were several groups in India that felt that Nehru should opt for the capitalist bloc led by the USA. India and the USA both believed in the democratic ideals and they could work together for progress. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar also supported this viewpoint.
- There were parties like Bharatiya Jana Sangh and Swatantra Party which were against the ideology of communism.
- This plan wanted the state government to take significant initiatives in industrial and other xeconomic matters.
- From this plan it becomes absolutely clear that even the prominent industrialists were in favour of having a planned economy.
17. Two components of India’s security strategy are as follows:
18. An effective step may be in the form of cooperative security only that involves international cooperation which may be bilateral, regional, continental or global which depends on the nature of the threat and the willingness and ability of countries to respond to limit war or violence, cooperative security may also involve various other players at national and international levels.
19. The emergence of WTO (World Trade Organisation) is another feature of globalisation. It came into being on 1 Jan., 1995 at Marrakesh. WTO is an indication of the globalisation process. Martin Shaw observes that, Although the WTO remains dominated by the West and is partly a forum for resolving into Western economic differences, it is not more or less universally accepted as the framework for regulating trade, as China’s admission in 1996 recognised.” At present, it consists of 161 members. It is trying to give a shape, order, and direction to the world trade by securing unanimous agreements after deliberating on trade issues as linked to competition, investment, etc.
- In the past, Indians preferred to consume different types of juice especially in summer. As a result, small local players, like juice shops, dominated the non-alcoholic beverage segment. With the globalisation of the society, the Indian consumers are exposed to a number of beverages, such as mocktails.
- Globalisation has resulted in increase in availability and diversity of food. This kind of phenomenon is more visible in urban areas. American restaurant chains have been opening their doors for last two decades. Wherever you go, you can see McDonalds, Pizza Hut and Burger King.
- The Soviet system gave primary importance to the state and the institution of the party.
- The Soviet political system centered on the Communist Party and no other political party or opposition was allowed.
- The economy was planned and controlled by the state.
- It was then more developed than the rest of the world except for the US.
- It had a complex communication network, vast energy resources and a transport sector that connected its faraway regions with efficiency.
22. Orissa had one of the highest reserves of iron ores in the country. The increase in the global steel demand led to the increase in the requirements of the iron-ore which was an essential commodity for steel.
- The state government of Orissa saw an opportunity and signed an MoU (Memorandum of Understanding) with the private companies to establish steel plants in the state. This would have led to an increase in the investment in the state and employment opportunities for people.
- The government was eager to accept the foreign proposals of investment as they thought that it will increase their revenue and give opportunities to the skilled as well as unskilled workers.
23. The defeat of Congress Party in 1989 marked an end of Congress dominance over Indian Party System. But Congress continued to influence politics in country:
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27. The reasons could be:
Special status provoked two opposite reactions:
In 2019, Articles 370 and 35(A) that gave the erstwhile state its special status and the mandate to define its domicile rules were nullified.
The Assam Movement (1979-1985) was a popular movement against illegal immigrants in Assam.
- The movement, led by All Assam Students Union (AASU) and the Assam Gana Parishad (AGP), developed a program of protests and demonstration to compel the Indian government to identify and expel illegal, (mostly Bangladeshis), immigrants.
- Their aim was to protect and provide constitutional, legislative and administrative safeguards to
the indigenous Assamese.
- Overall the natives of Assam felt that their cultural importance was diminishing in addition to subservience in administrative and political domains.
- The movement was a non-violent one initially, but it tried to blockade the movement of trains and the supply of oil from Assam to refineries in Bihar. Assam Accord–signed between the then
Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi on behalf of the Government of India and the leaders of the Assam Movement on 15 August, 1985 was the phenomenal outcome of this agitation.
- Assam accord brought peace and changed the face of politics in Assam.
- The accord promised appropriate constitutional, legislative and administrative safeguards be
provided to protect, preserve and promote the cultural, social, linguistic identity and heritage of the
- According to this agreement those foreigners who migrated into Assam during and after Bangladesh war were to be identified and deported.
- The accord brought an end to the Assam Movement and paved the way for the leaders of the agitation to form a political party and form a government in the state.
28. After the independence of Sri Lanka, the ruling class of the nation represented the interest of the Sinhalese community which was in majority.
- The Sinhalese community had resentments against the Tamil people who have migrated in large numbers from India and settled in Sri Lanka.
- The Sinhalese leaders did not want to give equal rights and liberties to the Tamil people. This led to the development of Tamil nationalism in the nation.
- The interest of the Tamil people was represented by an organisation known as the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE). The demand of the LTTE was a separate nation for the Tamils named Tamil Eelam.
- Seeing the interest of the Tamil people, India interfered in the matter and sent its troops to the
nation to stabilise the relation between the Sri Lankan government and Tamils. This decision did not prove beneficial for India and it came in conflict with the Tamils. Finally, India withdrew its
force in 1989.
- The conflict between the LTTE and the Sri Lankan government continued till 2009 after which the LTTE vanished.
Some of the important factors that have led to the failure of democracy in Pakistan are:
- The social dominance of the military and the clergies have led to the undermining the powers and status of the elected government.
- The influence of the landowning aristocracy in political matters was very high that proved detrimental to democracy.
- The rivalry between India and Pakistan has further increased the powers of the military groups as they have taken advantage of the security situation.
- The army groups have propagated the idea that democracy is harmful for the nation and undermines the security of Pakistan.
- All these factors have proved to causes for the frequent establishment of military rule. However, the common people of Pakistan still have immense faith in democracy.
29. The foreign policy is shaped by the political leadership. However, some of the areas like national interest and protection of borders remain constant for every political party. The first foreign policy of India was designed by Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru. We can see the highlights of his policy.
Nehru’s first objective was to preserve the sovereignty of India. His second objective was to ensure the territorial integrity of India and the third was to bring rapid economic development in India. These three visions guided his foreign policies. For achieving these policies Nehru chose the path of Non- Alignment. He did not join any of the capitalist and communist blocs. Nehru wanted to pursue his vision of peaceful world and wanted to remain away from the cold war rivalries of the US and USSR. In his policy of Non-Alignment Nehru received support from several other nations who have been sufferer of the imperial policies of the West. Some of the nations were Ghana, Egypt and Yugoslavia.
The Chinese launched an offensive against India in October 1962:
- Chinese attacked both the disputed areas within India i.e., the Aksai Chin area and the region of Arunachal Pradesh.
- In the first attack that lasted for about a week the Chinese became successful in capturing some regions of Arunachal Pradesh.
- The second attack came in the next month. India showed resistance against the Chinese aggression
in the region of Ladakh. On the other hand, in the eastern border Chinese became successful in reaching the entry points of Assam.
- In the same month the Chinese made a unilateral declaration of the ceasefire and the Chinese troops returned back to their original position before the beginning of the invasion.
- This brought to an end to the Indo-China war of 1962.
30. Demerits of Globalisation:
- Expensive seeds purchased form MNC’s compelled farmers committing suicides due to crop failure.
- Slowly and gradually MNC’s started buying Indian companies, resulted in instability in market.
- Critical sectors such as health, housing and primary education did not receive the attention that they deserved.
- In view of increasing competition from the world, the economies tend to be over protective of Country’s own interests. This, ironically, leads the economies of the world to move away from one another instead of coming together.
- Due to globalisation, the developed economies use the huge population and market potential of the
developing economics to maximise their profits with little regard for social and other considerations.
- Countries which have had faster economic growth have been able to improve living standards and
reduce poverty. India has cut its poverty rate in half in the past two decades as a consequence of
- Improved wealth through the economic gains of globalisation has led to improved access to health care and clean water which has increased life expectancy.
- Some countries have been unable to take advantage of globalisation and their standards of living are dropping further behind the richest countries.
- Increased trade and travel have facilitated the spread of human, animal and plant diseases like HIV/AIDS, SARS and bird flu, across borders.
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