NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Geography Chapter 1 - Introduction to Maps

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    36. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below:

    (i) Which one of the following is essential for the network of lines and polygons to be called a map?

    (a) Map Legend

    (b) Symbols

    (c) North Direction

    (d) Map Scale

    Ans. (d) Map Scale

    (ii) A map bearing a scale of 1: 4000 and larger is called:

    (a) Cadastral map

    (b) Topographical map

    (c) Wall map

    (d) Atlas map

    Ans. (a) Cadastral Map

    (iii) Which one of the following is NOT an essential element of maps?

    (a) Map Projection

    (b) Map Generalisation

    (c) Map Design

    (d) History of Maps

    Ans. (d) History of Maps

    37. Answer the following questions in about 30 words:

    (i) What is map generalisation?

    Ans. It is the responsibility of a cartographer to generalise the contents of a map because map are created at a reduced scale to fulfil a specific function. To achieve this, a cartographer must choose the information pertinent to the chosen theme and simplify it as necessary. It is known as generalisation of a map. Every map is created with a specific goal in mind. To illustrate broad facts, such as relief, drainage, vegetation, settlements, modes of transportation, etc., a general-purpose map could be created. Similarly, a special purpose map displays data related to one or more chosen topics, such as population density, soil types, or the location of enterprises. It is, therefore, necessary to carefully plan the map contents while the purpose of the map must be kept in the forefront.

    (ii) Why is map design important?

    Ans. The planning of map graphic components, such as the selection of acceptable symbols, their size and form, style of typography, specification of line width, choice of colours and shades, organisation of various map design elements inside a map, and design for map legend, is crucial. The map design is therefore, a complex aspect of map making and requires thorough understanding of the principles that govern the effectiveness of graphic communication.

    (iii) What are different types of small-scale maps?

    Ans. Small-scale maps are divided into two types:

    (a) Wall Map: These maps are often created  on huge sheets of paper or a plastic base, for use in lecture halls and classrooms. Wall maps often have a scale that is bigger than atlas maps but smaller than topographical maps.

    (b) Atlas Maps: These map are very smallscale maps and represent fairly large areas to present highly generalised picture of the physical or cultural features. Even so, an atlas map serves as a graphic encyclopaedia of the geographical information about the world, continents, countries or regions.

    (iv) List out two major types of large-scale maps?

    Ans. Large-scale maps are divided into two types:

    (a) Cadastral maps: The word “cadastral,” which means “record of territorial property,” this word drived from the French word “cadastre.” By defining the boundaries of individual fields on agricultural land and the layout of individual house in urban areas, these maps are created to illustrate who owns what land. The government
    entities create the cadastral maps in order to realise revenue and taxed and to maintain ownership records.

    (b) Topographical Maps: Additionally, these maps are created on a large scale. The topographical maps are created in the form of a series of maps by the national mapping agencies of almost all countries of the world and are based on detailed surveys. These maps display topographic information such as relief, drainage, agricultural land, forest, settlements, means of communication, location of schools, post offices, and other services and facilities using standardised colours and symbols.

    (v) How is a map different from a sketch?

    Ans. A simplified map drawn freehand which lacks to preserve the true scale orientation. Map shows a plane surface of earth at a reduced scale. In simple words, map has a specific scale and sketch does not have a scale. Map in drawn scientifically and sketch is drawn roughly. Sketch drawing is an art while map making is a science and science of map is called cartography.

    38. Write an explanatory account of types of maps.

    Ans. Types of maps based on scale: On the basis of scale, maps may be classified into large-scale and small-scale.

    (a) Large-scale Maps: Large scale maps are drawn to show small areas at a relatively large-scale with great detail. Large-scale maps are further divided into the following types:

    (i) Cadastral maps: These maps are drawn to show the ownership of landed property by demarcating field boundaries of agricultural land and the plan of individual houses in urban areas. The cadastral maps are prepared by the government agencies to realise revenue and taxes, along with keeping a record of ownership.

    (ii) Topographical maps: These maps are also prepared on a fairly large scale. The topographical maps are based on precise surveys and are prepared in the form
    of series of maps made by the national mapping agencies of almost all countries of the world.

    (b) Small-scale Maps: These maps represent large area on a small sheets of paper. Smallscale maps are divided into the following types:

    (i) Wall Maps: These maps are generally drawn on large size paper or on plastic base for use in classrooms or lecture halls.

    (ii) Atlas Maps: These maps represent fairly large areas and present highly generalised picture of the physical or cultural features.

    Types of maps based on function

    The maps may also be classified on the basis of their functions.

    (a) Physical Maps: These map show natural features such as relief, geology, soils, drainage, elements of weather, climate and vegetation, etc.

    (i) Relief Maps: These maps show general topography of an area like mountains and valleys, plains, plateaus and drainage.

    (ii) Geological Maps: These maps are drawn to show geological structures, rock types, etc.

    (iii) Climatic Maps: These maps depict climatic regions of an area.

    (iv) Soil Maps: Maps are also drawn to show the distribution of different types of soil(s) and their properties.

    (b) Cultural Maps: These maps show manmade features. These include a variety of maps showing population distribution and growth, sex and age, social and religious composition, literacy, levels of educational attainment, occupational structure, location of settlements, facilities and services, transportation lines and production, distribution and flow of different commodities.

    (i) Political Maps: Show the administrative divisions of an area such as country, state or district.

    (ii) Population Maps: Are drawn to show the distribution, density and growth of population, age and sex composition, distribution of religious, linguistic and
    social groups, occupational structure of the population, etc.

    (iii) Economic Maps: Depict production and distribution of different types of crops and minerals, location of industries and markets, routes for trade and flow of

    (iv) Transportation Maps: Show roads, railway lines and the location of railway stations and airports

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