NCERT Solutions For Class 12 Geography Part A Chapter 2 Population
Q. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.
(i) Which one of the following continents has the highest growth of population?
(ii) Which one of the following is not an area of sparse population?
(iii) Which one of the following is not a push factor?
(iv) Which one of the following is not a fact?
Q. Answer the following questions in about 30 words:
(i) Name three geographical factors that influence the distribution of population:
Ans. The three geographical factors that influence the distribution of population are:
- Availability of water: It is the most important factor of life. People prefer to live in areas where fresh water is readily available. Water is essential in development of agriculture and carrying out day-to-day activities.
- Land forms: People prefer to live in flat plains and gentle slopes as they are favourable for the production of crops and in building roads and industries.
- Climate: People prefer living in areas that do not have extreme climatic conditions that is areas that do not have high diurnal and annual range of temperature and also which have adequate rainfall.
- Soils: Fertile soils are important for agricultural and allied activities. Therefore, areas which have fertile loamy soils, have more people living on them as they can support intensive agriculture
(ii) There are a number of areas of high population density in the world. Why does this happen?
Ans. The areas with high population density across the world have at least one or usually multiple factors favourable for the settlement of population. Wherever people found conducive conditions for living, they have been settling there. With passage of time and growth of population, these areas became regions of thick population density. For example, the regions with availability of water, good climate, presence of minerals and other resources, of religious or cultural significance became regions of thick population. Example: Ganga-Yamuna Doab, Mediterranean regions.
(iii) What are the three components of population change?
Ans. The three components of population change are:
- Crude Birth Rate (CBR): It is expressed as number of live births in a year per thousand of population in a particular region.
- Crude Death Rate (CDR): It is the number of deaths in a place per thousand of population in a particular region. CBR and CDR are natural factors of population growth. They result in natural population growth, which is equal to the difference between CBR and CDR.
- Migration: It is the induced factor in population growth. It is the number of people moving in and out of a place due to various social, economic and political reasons. It is taken into account while calculating actual growth of population.
Q. Distinguish between:
(i) Birth rate and Death rate:
|Birth rate||Death Rate|
|Definition||It is the number of live births per
thousand of population during a year
for a particular region.
|It is the number of deaths per thousand
of population during a year for a
|Formula||It is calculated using the following
CBR = Bi/P × 1000
Where, CBR = crude birth rate,
Bi = Number of live births in a year, P = the estimated midyear population of
|It is calculated using the following
CDR= D/P × 1000
Where, CDR = crude death rate,
D = Number of deaths in a year,
P = the estimated midyear population of
|Type of growth||If birth rate is more than death rate, it
results in positive growth of population.
|If death rate is more than birth rate it
results in negative growth of population.
(ii). Distinguish between Push factors and pull factors of migration
|Push factors||Pull factors|
|Definition||The factors which a place less attractive for human settlement.||The factors which make a place an attractive destination for settlement.|
|Movement||The factors that force people to move out-hence face emigration||The factors that force inflow of people – hence face immigration.|
|Example||Unemployment, poor living conditions, political turmoil, unpleasant climate, natural disasters, epidemics and socio-economic backwardness.||Better job opportunities, better living conditions, peace and stability, security of life and property and pleasant climate.|
Q. Answer the following questions in about 150 words:
(i) Discuss the factors influencing the distribution and density of population in the world.
Ans. The factors influencing the distribution and density of population in the world may be classified into three broad categories. These are as follows:
(1) Geographical Factors:
- Availability of water: It is the most important factor for life. So, people prefer to live in areas where fresh water is easily available. Water is used for drinking, bathing and cooking and also for cattle, crops, industries and navigation. It is because of this that river valleys are among the most densely populated areas of the world.
- Landforms: People prefer living on flat plains and gentle slopes. This is because such areas are favourable for the production of crops and to build roads and industries. The mountainous and hilly areas hinder the development of transport network and hence initially do not favour agricultural and industrial development. So, these areas tend to be less populated. The Ganga plains are among the most densely populated areas of the world while the mountains zones in the Himalayas are scarcely populated.
- Climate: An extreme climate such as very hot or cold deserts are uncomfortable for human habitation. Areas with a comfortable climate, where there is not much seasonal variation attract more people. Areas with very heavy rainfall or extreme and harsh climates have low population. Mediterranean regions were inhabited from early periods in history due to their pleasant climate.
- Soils: Fertile soils are important for agricultural and allied activities. Therefore, areas which have fertile loamy soils have more people living on them as these can
support intensive agriculture. Can you name some areas in India which are thinly populated due to poor soils?
(ii) Economic Factors:
- Minerals: Areas with mineral deposits attract industries. Mining and industrial activities generate employment. So, skilled and semi-skilled workers move to these areas and make them densely populated. Katanga Zambia copper belt in Africa is one such good example.
- Urbanisation: Cities offer better employment opportunities, educational and medical facilities, better means of transport and communication. Good civic amenities and the attraction of city life draw people to the cities. It leads to rural to urban migration and cities grow in size. Mega cities of the world continue to attract large number of migrants every year.
- Industrialisation: Industrial belts provide job opportunities and attract large numbers of people. These include not just factory workers but also transport operators, shopkeepers, bank employees, doctors, teachers and other service providers. The Kobe-Osaka region of Japan is thickly populated because of the presence of a number of industries.
(iii) Social and Cultural Factors
Some places attract more people because they have religious or cultural significance. In the same way – people tend to move away from places where there is social and political unrest. Many a times governments offer incentives to people to live in sparsely populated areas or move away from overcrowded places.
(2) Discuss the three stages of demographic transition.
Ans. Demographic transition theory can be used to describe and predict the future population of any area. The theory tells us that population of any region changes from high births and high deaths to low births and low deaths as society progresses from rural agrarian and illiterate to urban industrial and literate society. These
changes occur in stages which are collectively known as the demographic cycle.
The first stage has high fertility and high mortality because people reproduce more to compensate for the deaths due to epidemics and variable food supply. The population growth is slow and most of the people are engaged in agriculture where large families are an asset. Life expectancy is low, people are mostly illiterate and have low levels of technology. Two hundred years ago all the countries of the world were in this stage.
Fertility remains high in the beginning of second stage but it declines with time. This is accompanied by reduced mortality rate. Improvements in sanitation and health conditions lead to decline in mortality. Because of this gap the net addition to population is high.
In the last stage, both fertility and mortality decline considerably. The population is either stable or grows slowly. The population becomes urbanised, literate and has high technical know-how and deliberately controls the family size.
This shows that human beings are extremely flexible and are able to adjust their fertility.
In the present day, different countries are at different stages of demographic transition.
Q. On an outline map of the world name the following:
(i) Countries of Europe and Asia with negative growth rate of population.
(ii) Countries of Europe and Asia with negative growth rate of population.
Ans. (i) Europe: Estonia, Croatia, Romania, Bulgaria etc.
• Asia : Japan, Armenia, etc.
(ii) Angola, Niger, Guinea, etc.