CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus 2023-24

CBSE has released the Latest Updated Syllabus for the New Academic Session 2023-24 on March 31st, 2023, for class 12.

CBSE Board has released the latest Class 12 Biology syllabus which is to be strictly followed. Below please find our detailed analysis of Board Paper pattern, Unit-wise summary for the New Session 2023-24.

We have also updated Oswal Gurukul Books as per the Latest Paper Pattern prescribed by Board for each Subject Curriculum.

Students can directly access the CBSE Biology Syllabus for Class 12 of the academic year 2023-24 by clicking on the link below.

PDF download links to the latest Class 12 Biology Syllabus for 2023-24 academic session

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CBSE Class 12 Biology Latest Syllabus 2023-24

Units Title Marks
6 Reproduction 16
7 Genetics and Evolution 20
8 Biology and Human Welfare 12
9 Biotechnology and its Applications 12
10 Ecology and Environment 10
  Total 70

CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus 2023-24: Unit-wise Summary

Unit-VI Reproduction

Chapter-2: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
Flower structure; development of male and female gametophytes; pollination - types, agencies and examples; out breeding devices; pollen-pistil interaction; double fertilization; post fertilization events - development of endosperm and embryo, development of seed and formation of fruit; special modes- apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed dispersal and fruit formation.

Chapter-3: Human Reproduction
Male and female reproductive systems; microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; gametogenesis -spermatogenesis and oogenesis; menstrual cycle; fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; pregnancy and placenta formation (elementary idea); parturition (elementary idea); lactation (elementary idea).

Chapter-4: Reproductive Health
Need for reproductive health and prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs); birth control - need and methods, contraception and medical termination of pregnancy (MTP); amniocentesis; infertility and assisted reproductive technologies - IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (elementary idea for general awareness).

Unit-VII Genetics and Evolution

Chapter-5: Principles of Inheritance and Variation
Heredity and variation: Mendelian inheritance; deviations from Mendelism – incomplete dominance, co-dominance, multiple alleles and inheritance of blood groups, pleiotropy;
elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; chromosome theory of inheritance; chromosomes and genes; Sex determination - in humans, birds and honey bee; linkage and crossing over; sex linked inheritance - haemophilia, colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans - thalassemia; chromosomal disorders in humans; Down's syndrome, Turner's and Klinefelter's syndromes.

Chapter-6: Molecular Basis of Inheritance
Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central Dogma; transcription, genetic code, translation; gene expression and regulation - lac operon; Genome, Human and rice genome projects; DNA fingerprinting.

Chapter-7: Evolution
Origin of life; biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution (paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidences); Darwin's contribution, modern synthetic theory of evolution; mechanism of evolution - variation (mutation and recombination) and natural selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy - Weinberg's principle; adaptive radiation; human evolution.

Unit-VIII Biology and Human Welfare

Chapter-8: Human Health and Diseases
Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (malaria, dengue, chikungunya, filariasis, ascariasis, typhoid, pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm) and their control; Basic concepts of immunology - vaccines; cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence - drug and alcohol abuse.

Chapter-10: Microbes in Human Welfare
Microbes in food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and microbes as bio-control agents and bio-fertilizers. Antibiotics; production and judicious use.

Unit-IX Biotechnology and its Applications

Chapter-11: Biotechnology - Principles and Processes
Genetic Engineering (Recombinant DNA Technology).

Chapter-12: Biotechnology and its Applications
Application of biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, stem cell technology, gene therapy; genetically modified organisms - Bt crops; transgenic animals; biosafety issues, biopiracy and patents.

Unit-X Ecology and Environment

Chapter-13: Organisms and Populations
Population interactions - mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; population attributes - growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution. (Topics excluded: Organism and its Environment, Major Aboitic Factors, Responses to Abioitic Factors, Adaptations)

Chapter-14: Ecosystem
Ecosystems: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; energy flow; pyramids of number, biomass, energy (Topics excluded: Ecological Succession and Nutrient Cycles).

Chapter-15: Biodiversity and its Conservation
Biodiversity-Concept, patterns, importance; loss of biodiversity; biodiversity conservation; hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, Sacred Groves, biosphere reserves, national parks, wildlife, sanctuaries and Ramsar sites.

Evaluation Scheme for Examination

Evaluation Scheme Marks
One Major Experiment 5 5
One Minor Experiment 2 & 3 4
Slide Preparation 1 & 4 5
Spotting 7
Practical Record + Viva Voce (Credit to the students’ work over 4

Investigatory Project and its

Project Record + Viva Voce the academic session may be given)

Total 30 Marks

CBSE Class 12 Biology Question Paper Design 2023-24

Demonstrate Knowledge and Understanding 50%
Application of Knowledge / Concepts 30%
Analyse, Evaluate and Create 20%


  • Typology of questions: VSA including MCQs, Assertion – Reasoning type questions; SA; LA- I; LA-II; Source-based/ Case-based/ Passage-based/ Integrated assessment questions.
  • An internal choice of approximately 33% would be provided.

Suggestive verbs for various competencies

  • Demonstrate, Knowledge and Understanding
    State, name, list, identify, define, suggest, describe, outline, summarize, etc.
  • Application of Knowledge/Concepts
    Calculate, illustrate, show, adapt, explain, distinguish, etc.
  • Analyze, Evaluate and Create
    Interpret, analyse, compare, contrast, examine, evaluate, discuss, construct, etc.

The Changes for Class 12 (2023-24) Year-end Board Examinations are as under:

Particulars Academic Session 2022-23 Academic Session 2023-24
Composition of question paperyear-end examination/ Board Examination (Theory)
  • Competency Based Questions are 30% in the form of Multiple-Choice Questions, Case Based Questions, Source Based Integrated Questions or any other type.
  • Objective Question are 20%
  • Remaining 50% Questions are Short Answer/Long Answer Questions
  • Competency Focused Questions in the form of MCQs/Case Based Questions, Source-based Integrated Questions or any other type = 40%
  • Select response type questions(MCQ) = 20%
  • Constructed response questions (Short Answer Questions/Long Answer type Questions, as per existing pattern) = 40%

2022-23 Reduced Syllabus

(for reference purposes only)

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