NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology

Class 12 Biology NCERT Solutions are prepared by skilled minds who came together to help students prepare for their academic year. There have been many major modifications in the NCERT curriculum based on National Education Policy (NEP 2020). The NEP aims to reduce the content load while focusing on comprehensive learning for students. There have been some changes in chapters in Biology class 12 as well. The 12th Biology chapter list extends the units the Science students studied in class 11

With NCERT Solutions, students will be able to understand the class 12 NCERT Biology chapters with ease. The chapters in Biology class 12 focus on the physiological reproduction process in flowering plants and humans. The class 12 NCERT Biology chapters further relate genes to evolution. Class 12 Biology NCERT solutions allow students to be exam ready from the very first day.  

Class 12 Biology NCERT Solutions

The NCERT syllabus for class 12 Biology emphasises the underlying principles common to animals and plants. NCERT has made a lot of efforts to de-stressing the heavy content load after the implementation of NEP 2020. NCERT Solutions has kept up with the changing educational trends, making the language simpler and easy to understand. The NCERT solutions will give students an idea about the exam pattern based on the revised NCERT syllabus. With the help of these Biology NCERT solutions, students will be able to understand each concept better and will be exam ready. They can prepare the NCERT Biology Syllabus per the exam pattern and marks weightage.
This year, though, the NCERT has focused on reducing the content load but has ensured not to miss any topic relevant to a student's knowledge base. Class 12 NCERT Biology chapters include topics like environmental issues, adolescent problems and reproductive health in detail. Many areas have been dealt with in class 11 and class 12 combined. The focus is to inform students about the varied biological material, understand the spectrum of living bodies, and experience the living process in detail.

Class 12 Biology NCERT Solutions – Free PDF Download

Here is the list of class 12 Biology all chapter names:

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter Brief

In the continuation of class 11 Biology, the class 12 Biology chapters list has 13 chapters. The Class 12 NCERT Biology starts with the 6th unit which is designed by NCERT experts for higher secondary students. The 13 chapters in class 12 Biology are covered in 4 units under topics like Reproduction, Genetics & Evolution, Biology in Human Welfare, Biotechnology, and Ecology. There are a total of 10 units that have been segregated for class 11 and 12 students. The class 12 Biology NCERT solutions by Oswal Publishers will help students plan their academic year and ace their studies. The new format of Bio class 12 has been designed as per the National Education Policy (NEP 2020), which focuses on the holistic growth of a student. The NCERT 12 Biology solutions are based on the NCERT syllabus and the chapters that are mentioned below:

Chapter 1: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

Reproduction is a natural process. It is part of our evolution and lets species grow and multiply. The Sexual Reproduction unit of 12 Bio NCERT chapters begins with a chapter on the reproduction process of flowering plants. The class 12 Biology NCERT solutions would help students understand the morphology, structure and process of sexual reproduction in flowering plants. The class 12 chapter in Biology will give an insight into the reproduction process, pre-fertilisation, double fertilisation, post-fertilisation and Apomixis & Polyembryony.

Chapter 2: Human Reproduction

The birth of a child seems normal, but it is quite a complex procedure. The reproductive organs in males and females are very different, and the reproduction process needs to be learnt in-depth to understand the whole cycle. Chapters in Biology Class 12 are meant to strengthen the base of a student in the subject. The second chapter entails the study of The Male Reproductive System, Female Reproductive System, Gametogenesis, Menstrual Cycle, Fertilisation and Implantation, Pregnancy & Embryonic Development, and Parturition and Lactation.

Chapter 3: Reproductive Health

In the third chapter of class 12 NCERT Biology, the focus is not just on the healthy reproductive organs but also on their emotional and social aspects. Per the WHO guidelines, reproductive health plays a crucial role in a person's physical, emotional, behavioural and social well-being. The chapter draws a child's attention towards the overall well-being concerning sex-related aspects. The topics covered in this chapter of class 12 Biology are Reproductive Health-Problems and Strategies; Population Explosion and Birth Control; Medical Termination of Pregnancy; Sexually Transmitted Diseases, and Infertility. The content in the NCERT Biology textbook also focuses on the importance of safe sex and offers an introduction to specialised topics like IVF, Birth Control, AIDS, Abortion and more.

Chapter 4: Principled of Inheritance and Variation

Chapter 4 of NCERT class 12 Biology further delves into the complex structure of DNA, genetics and the concept of inheritance. Flowers, plants, animals, humans, and every living species reproduce and pass on their genetics with a complex DNA structure. Genetics keep on evolving with time. This chapter will throw light on various related topics. It would involve study of Mendel's Laws of Inheritance, Inheritance of One Gene, Inheritance of Two Genes, Sex Determination, Mutation and Genetic Disorders.

Chapter 5: Molecular Basis of Inheritance

DNA is known to be the most abundant genetic material. This chapter further explains the importance of DNA and its relation to RNA. Chapter 5 of class 12 Biology talks about the structure of DNA, its replication, the process of making RNA from DNA, the genetic code that determines the sequences of amino acids in proteins, the process of protein synthesis (translation) and the elementary basis of their regulation. The topics covered include DNA, The Search for Genetic Material, RNA World, Replication, Transcription, Genetic Code, Translation, Regulation of Gene Expression, Human Genome Project and DNA Fingerprinting.

Chapter 6: Evolution

Chapter 6 in 12 class Biology chapters begins with the introduction to the origin of life. The aim is to understand the concept of evolution, including the whole flora and fauna of the earth. The process of earth's evolution is described in easy and simple language with the help of various theories like Lamarckism, Darwinism, and Neo-Darwinism and evidence that we can are there to support these theories. The topics covered include Origin of Life; Evolution of Life Forms-A Theory; What are the Evidences for Evolution, what is Adaptive Radiation, Biological Evolution, Mechanism of Evolution, Hardy-Weinberg Principle, A Brief Account of Evolution, and Origin and Evolution of Man.

Chapter 7: Human Health and Disease

As we evolved, so did many health issues. With evolution, however, humans overcame most of the health challenges. NCERT 12 Biology solutions are designed for students to support them in their academic journey and give them a glimpse of NCERT questions & answers they might get in their exams. For Chapter 7 of NCERT 12 Biology, the NCERT solutions cover topics like Common Diseases in Humans, Immunity, AIDS, Cancer, Drugs and Alcohol Abuse.

Chapter 8: Microbes in Human Welfare

Chapter 8 of class 12 Biology NCERT revolves around the tiny microbes around us. Students will cover topics like Microbes in Households; Microbes in Industrial Products; Microbes in Sewage Treatment; Microbes in Biogas; Microbes as Biocontrol Agents, and Microbes as Biofertilisers.

Chapter 9: Biotechnology: Principles and Processes

Going further with the concepts of Biology, Chapter 9 of class 12 Biology NCERT chapters deals with the Biotechnology of living organisms. The chapter takes students into the depth of principles of Biotechnology, Tools of Recombinant DNA Technology, and Processes of Recombinant.

Chapter 10: Biotechnology and its Application

Chapters in the Biology class 12 textbook are set up to allow students to explore the vast field of Biology. Biotechnology refers to producing biopharmaceuticals and biologicals using genetically modified crops, food, bioremediation, waste treatment, and energy production. The topics covered in this chapter include Biotechnological Applications in Agriculture, Biotechnological Applications in Medicine, Transgenics Animals and Ethical Issues.

Chapter 11: Organisms and Populations

The last unit in the NCERT class 12 Biology deals with ecology. The field covers the whole ecosystem, including organisms, populations, communities and biomes. This chapter will answer all questions of students regarding the Whys and Hows of our ecology.

Chapter 12: Ecosystem

Chapter 12 of the class 12 NCERT Biology would cover topics like Ecosystem-Structure and Function; Productivity; Decomposition; Energy Flow; and Ecological Pyramids. There would be a focus on understanding the complexity of our ecosystem and making it simple for students with the easy language and simplification of concepts.

Chapter 13: Biodiversity and Conservation

Though we have not found any other planet with life on it, the rich variety of species inhabiting the earth is remarkable. There are more than 8 million species on earth, and we have not explored all as yet. Chapter 13 of NCERT explores the whole biodiversity and the ways to conserve it.

CBSE Class 12 Biology Chapter-wise Marking Scheme 2023-24 

S. No Topics Weightage
Unit VI Reproduction 15
Chapter 1 Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
Chapter 2 Human Reproduction
Chapter 3 Reproductive Health
Unit VII Genetics and Evolution 20
Chapter 4 Principles of Inheritance and Variation
Chapter 5 Molecular Basis of Inheritance
Chapter 6 Evolution
Unit VIII Biology in Human Welfare 14
Chapter 7 Human Health and Disease
Chapter 8 Microbes in Human Welfare
Unit IX Biotechnology 11
Chapter 9 Biotechnology: Principles and Processes
Chapter 10 Biotechnology and its Applications
Unit X Ecology 10
Chapter 11 Organisms and Populations
Chapter 12 Ecosystem
Chapter 13 Biodiversity and Conservation
Total 70

The Practical and internal assessment carries a weightage of 30 marks:

Practical Weightage
Practicals Term I 15
Practicals Term II 15
Total 30 Marks

Key Features of Class 12 Biology NCERT Solutions

The class 12 NCERT Biology syllabus has been revised to reduce the content load on students. The language of each chapter has been modified to make it simple and easy to understand. In its everlasting efforts to aid students in their academic journey, Oswal Publishers offers class 12 Biology NCERT solutions that help students prepare for their academic session with the help of a marking scheme and NCERT questions & answers pattern even before students sit for their exams. Here are some of the essential features of the Class 12 NCERT Biology Syllabus:

Simplified question & answer pattern: The class 12 NCERT Biology syllabus has been revised as per the NEP 2020. The NCERT Biology class 12 solutions further simplify the complex concepts like DNA, ecology, microbes and others that can be challenging for students. These class 12 NCERT Biology solutions give them an insight into what to expect in their academic journey.

Free NCERT Solutions: Class 12 NCERT Biology solutions are free for every student. You need not pay any subscription fee or charges. Feel free to use these solutions to prepare for the board exams.

Curated by Highly Skilled Experts: Specialised subject matter experts have come together to create these solutions to help students to bridge the gap between practice and preparation. Solutions to Biology in all chapters in class 12 are well-researched.

FAQs on Class 12 Biology NCERT Solutions

Ans: The class 12 Biology NCERT Solutions help students in boosting their preparation plan. Class 12 is a crucial stage in a student’s life, and these NCERT solutions will help students score well in their examinations. The NCERT-based questions & answers give them a foundation to begin their practice and strengthen their hold on the subject.

Ans: The class 12 Biology NCERT solutions are absolutely free for all. You don’t have to pay or subscribe to access these solutions. It is an earnest effort by our subject matter experts to provide the best NCERT study material.

Ans: The marking scheme for each unit is already mentioned above. Students can refer to the same while preparing for their exams. It is not advisable to leave any chapter. Each mark counts, and you must prepare as per the syllabus. Biology in class 12 is divided into two terms covering 13 chapters of the 4 units.

Ans: Many entrance tests like NEET, CUET, JEE and others follow the NCERT syllabus. It is advisable to start preparing from day one. Divide the chapters as per difficulty level and start studying the most difficult ones first. Check the class 12 Biology NCERT solutions to understand the question & answer pattern.

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