NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography

Geography is a vast land to covers all the topics. Oswal Publishers' Class 12 Geography NCERT solutions are designed to help students in planning their academic timetable for class 12th Geography. Some of the high-skilled minds create class 12 NCERT Geography solutions.

In times when the whole ecology is changing rapidly, professionals like Geologists, environmentalists, Town Planners, Landscape Artists, and cartographers help in understanding the geography and living in a space that can sustain human life.

Geography class 12 is just the beginning of the vast opportunities that this subject opens up for class 12 students. Class 12 Geography NCERT solutions let you understand the topics and content that the NCERT has set for 12th-class Geography students.

Class 12 Geography NCERT Solutions

Like the NCERT class 12 Geography textbook, Geography class 12 Solutions covers all three books released for class 12 Geography students. NCERT has made quite a change in the content setup. This step has been taken following the NEP 2020, which focuses on holistic learning not through content but with live examples and experience.

Geography class 12 solutions cover class 12 Geography NCERT all chapters. These NCERT solutions for class 12 Geography will help students understand the exam pattern for the class 12 examination.

Many students search for class 12 Geography question answers at the time of examination, but having the Geography class 12 solutions at the beginning of the academic session gives you an upper hand. Understanding the question and answering patterns through Gurukul By Oswal's class 12 Geography NCERT solutions will prepare you exam-ready.

Class 12 Geography NCERT Solutions – Free PDF Download

NCERT Solutions Class 12 Geography All Chapters

Part A: Fundamental of Human Geography

    • Human Geography
    • Nature and Scope
    • The World Population Distribution, Density and Growth
    • Human Development
    • Primary Activities
    • Secondary Activities
    • Tertiary and Quaternary Activities
    • Transport and Communication
    • International Trade

Part B: India-People and Economy

    • Population: Distribution, Density, Growth and Composition
    • Human Settlements
    • Land Resources and Agriculture
    • Water Resources
    • Mineral and Energy Resources
    • Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context
    • Transport and Communication
    • International Trade
    • Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems

Part C: Practical Work in Geography

    • Data-Its Source and Compilation
    • Data Processing
    • Graphical Representation of Data
    • Use of Computer in Data Processing and Mapping
    • Field Surveys
    • Spatial Information Technology

NCERT Solutions Class 12 Geography Chapter Brief

Geography is not just about studying landscapes. It is a vast field where students are taught about town planning, utilising resources, the economy and its impact on a region, the possible impact of natural disasters, and how to manage them. Class 12 Geography NCERT solutions are designed perfectly in tandem with the NCERT class 12 Geography syllabus. Each topic has been covered in the NCERT solution of class 12 Geography.

These class 12 Geography NCERT solutions prepare students for a detailed study of Geography. The language is not complex, and answers are written in a manner that can help you score more in your exams.

The class 12 Geography NCERT solutions cover all the chapters of both the parts in 12th class Geography. Class 12 Geography NCERT solutions are based on the following chapters;

Part A: Fundamental of Human Geography 

Chapter 1: Human Geography-Nature and Scope

Geography is much beyond the mountains and rivers. Humans are a part of nature and, therefore, a part of the Geography field as well. The first chapter of the 12th class Geography emphasizes the interdependence between nature and human beings. The NCERT textbook has explained the topics well with various case studies. The class 12 Geography NCERT solutions also cover the same concept and solutions that the field experts pen. The other topics that are covered in the first chapter are;

    • Fields and subfields of Human Geography and its relation with other branches of Social Sciences.
    • Difference between Environmental Determinism and Possibilism.
    • Neo-determinism with examples from real life.

Chapter 2: The World Population: Distribution, Density, and Growth

Human civilization has come a long way. From being in the caves to now more than 100 countries, the world has been populated based on different parameters. The second chapter of the 12th Geography NCERT explains the patterns of population distribution in the world and correlates the factors influencing population distribution. The chapter further goes in-depth in understanding the nature of different groups based on region, religion, and other factors. Students would be able to learn about the following;

    • Calculate the density of the population, birth rate, and death rate
    • Components responsible for population change
    • Staged of population growth in the world using Demographic Transition Theory
    • Measures to control population growth
    • Definition of Growth of population, Natural growth of population, Positive growth of population, Negative growth of population

Chapter 3: Human Development

Chapter 3 of Human Development in 12th Geography is specially curated by Dr. Mehbub Ul Haq and Prof Amartya Sen. The third chapter in the Human Geography class 12 NCERT solutions thoroughly differentiates growth and development. Class 12 Geography NCERT solutions give an interesting peek into the topics with their specialised content. The topics that are covered include;

    • Three basic indicators of human development and measure the level of Human Development.
    • Human Development Index Published by UNDP
    • Compare HDI with Human Poverty Index
    • Key pillars of human development with examples
    • Comparison of income approach, welfare approach, basic needs approach, and capability approach to understand the concept of Human Development
    • Categorizing countries based on their HDI and explaining their characteristics

Chapter 4: Primary Activities

While the humans began their journey on this planet, they started to grow as a community. The exchange of money became important as trade flourished. The economic activities were now broadly divided into primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary. Primary activities are the ones that involve the use of natural resources and hence come under the periphery of Geography. Chapter 4 of 12th Geography explains the Primary Activities and physical & social factors that affect the type of primary activities. The chapter covers the following topics;

    • Definition of Economic Activities, Primary activities, Red Collar Worker, Pastoral Nomadism
    • Explain food gathering as an economic activity
    • Difference between pastoral nomadism 
    • Explain food gathering as an economic activity
    • Difference between pastoral nomadism and commercial livestock rearing
    • Difference between primitive subsistence and intensive subsistence farming
    • Characteristic features of plantation agriculture as a type of commercial farming
    • Analysis of low yield per acre against high yield per person in areas of extensive grain cultivation
    • Compare and contrast the farming practices in the developed urban areas of the world
    • Analysis of the model of Kolkhoz introduced in the erstwhile USSR boosts agricultural production
    • Examine the reasons for the success of cooperative farming in the European countries
    • Difference between open cast mining and shaft mining
    • How mining can have an impact on humans and the environment

Chapter 5: Secondary Activities 

After the Primary Activities, the Geography class 12 NCERT textbook gives a deep insight into the Secondary Activities. In 12th-class Geography, Secondary Activities refer to the economic activities that add value to the natural resources by using raw materials. For instance, iron ore is used to extract iron and utilize it to make iron products, and so on. The chapter helps in understanding the secondary activities and their emphasis on manufacturing industries. The class 12 Geography NCERT solutions cover all the topics that are explained in this chapter that, includes;

Concepts including Large-scale manufacturing, high technology industry, organisational setup, foot-loose industries, Agribusiness etc

    • Factors affecting the location of an industry
    • Difference between cottage industry and small-scale industry
    • Importance of high-tech industries and reason for them being attracted to the peripheral areas of major metropolitan cities
    • Comparison between large-scale industry and modern high-tech industry with examples
    • The interrelationship between industrial development and standard of living 

Chapter 6: Tertiary and Quaternary Activities

Tertiary and Quaternary Activities do not directly utilises the raw materials or natural resources. These activities are more about the service industry, like doctors, lawyers, teachers, and more. Chapter 6 of 12th Geography deals with different types of tertiary activity and their importance in the economy. The Class 12 Geography NCERT solutions explain each topic with its specialised content based on the Class 12 NCERT syllabus. In this chapter, class 12 NCERT Geography solutions cover topics like;

    • Comparison of traditional and modern economic activities
    • Correlation between tertiary activities and their role in the economic development of a country
    • Description of different types of tertiary activities
    • Different types of trading centres found in rural and urban areas and the role played by them in the local economy
    • Quinary activities and their role in advanced economies
    • Tertiary, Quaternary, and Quinary activities replacing jobs in primary and secondary sectors
    • Defining terms like BPO, Outsourcing, KPO, Departmental Store, Chain Store, Wholesale trading

Chapter 7: Transport and Communication

Transport is primarily used for connecting various places in connection with Geography, transport, communication, and trade, establishing links between producing centres and consuming centres. Chapter 7 of class 12 Geography explores various modes of transport globally, the development of communication networks, and their impact on the modern world. This will help students understand how humans developed by utilizing the resources and how the development and planning of transportation & communication are elevating development as a whole. The class 12 Geography NCERT solutions based on the Geography class 12 NCERT textbook help students understand the following topics in the following areas;

    • Comparison of various modes of transport
    • Relationship of transport and communication network to the economic development of a region
    • Major highways and major rail networks of different continents
    • Location and significance of the trans-Siberian Railway, Trans Canadian Railway, The Union and Pacific Railway, and Trans Australian Railway
    • Location and the economic importance of the major sea routes of the world 
    • Importance of the Suez Canal and Panama Canal
    • Modern communication systems and how it has resulted in making the global village a reality

Chapter 8: International Trade

As the mode of transport developed, so did the connectivity of nations. Trading accelerated with time. Today nations are trading with each other. Chapter 8 of Geography Class 12 apprises students about international trade's basic concepts and principles. World trade directly impacts the growth and development of a nation and also the standard of living. The class 12 Geography textbook puts emphasis on understanding the basis of international trade, the balance of trade, and types of international trade. Students also get to analyse the historical perspective of globalization, the role of WTO, its functions, and its implications on world trade. The importance of seaports as gateways of international trade is also explained. Students can refer to class 12 Geography NCERT solutions to better understand the questions and answers pattern. 

Part B: India-People and Economy

Chapter 1: Population-Distribution, Density, Growth and Composition

The first chapter of the class 12th Geography focuses on the distribution, density, growth, and composition patterns of India’s population. Recently, India has surpassed China in becoming the world’s most populous city. Understanding the relationship between population distribution and density is important for those who aim to get into town planning. This chapter explains the concept in detail and covers topics like;

    • Differentiation between the distribution of population and density of population
    • Explanation of terms like Physiological Density, Agricultural Density, Population doubling time, Working Population, Participation Rate, Main Worker, Marginal Worker, Rural Population, Urban Population, Adolescent Population
    • Factors responsible for the uneven distribution of population in India
    • Trends of population growth in India since 1901
    • Rural-urban population composition, religious composition, linguistic composition, and sectoral composition of workforce in India
    • The occupational structure of India’s population

Chapter 2: Human Settlements 

Chapter 2 of Geography Class 12 has been created to understand how human settlement has evolved over time. This chapter focuses on how the form and size of settlement of any particular region reflect the human relationship with the environment. NCERT Solutions Class 12 Geography covers all the major points that have been explained in this chapter that are;

    • Difference between rural and urban settlement
    • Factors that govern the types of rural settlement in India
    • Comparison and contrast clustered, semi-clustered, hamleted, and dispersed settlements with examples
    • Evolution of towns in India since prehistoric times
    • Classify towns based on their functions

Chapter 3: Land Resources and Agriculture

The land is used for agriculture, industry, and living as well. Chapter 3 of class 12 Geography intends to apprise students of the land-use categories as maintained in the land revenue records. The aim is to look deeply into India's evolving pattern of land use due to changes in shares of primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors in GDP. NCERT solutions of class 12 Geography have perfectly captured the essential topics that are;

    • Name and definition of the land use categories
    • Changes in shares of Land use categories in India between 1950 and 2014
    • Importance of common property resources for the community
    • Comparison between dryland and wetland farming
    • Comparison of geographical conditions required for the growth of various crops
    • The technological development that has taken place in Indian agriculture since Independence
    • Challenges faced by the Indian farmers and suggest measures to overcome them

Chapter 4: Water Resources

Water is essential for life. There would be no life without water. However, with the over-utilisation of water, a danger lurks over us. Water cannot be manufactured in a factory; it is a natural resource, and it is reducing quickly. This chapter will delve into the various water resources available in India and the factors determining the spatial distribution of the available water resources in the country and their utilisation.

Chapter 5: Mineral and Energy Resources

Water & Land are not the only resources that nature has provided us. The land is filled with many essential resources that have helped human evolution. Chapter 5 of 12th Geography tells you about Mineral and Energy Resources and their global distribution. The aim is to enlighten students about the importance of minerals in human life. Class 12 Geography NCERT solutions also make students prepare according to the structure of the chapter and cover topics like;

    • Classification of minerals based on chemical and physical properties
    • Major mineral belts of India
    • Different types of non-conventional mineral resources
    • Analysing why renewable energy resources will be the future source of resources
    • Measures to conserve our non-renewable resources
    • Map work to identify various mines in India

Chapter 6: Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context

Nations that have grown progressively are the ones who had the planning as per the need and demands of the times. India is growing tremendously and holds the potential to become the next power. Chapter 6 of the Part B 12th Geography explains to students the need for centralised planning to accelerate uniform economic development over space as well the role of NITI Aayog. The aim is to help students contemplate and understand various types of planning for developing a nation.

Chapter 7: Transport and Communication 

India is a vast country, yet a person sitting in Delhi can enjoy the juicy oranges of Nagpur or relish the apples of Kashmir. This is possible because of the highly organised transport system developed in India over the years. Chapter 7 of the class 12 Geography helps students learn about the various means of transport spread in different parts of India. Class 12th Geography NCERT solutions help students understand the structure of class 12 Geography NCERT chapters and be ready for their exams. The NCERT solutions of class 12 Geography cover the following topics in this chapter;

    • Various means of transport
    • Impact of the physical environment on the development of various modes of transport in different regions
    • Different types of highways found in India
    • Role of Indian Railways in the Growth of India’s Economy
    • Five national waterways of our country
    • Role of OIL and GAIL in the Development of gas pipelines in India
    • Impact of modern communication networks on our life
    • Map work for Terminal stations of the north-south corridor, East west corridor & golden quadrilateral

Chapter 8: International Trade 

From a closed economy to a Liberalised economy, India has come a long way. Chapter 8 of 12th Geography helps students learn about the changes that have taken place in India’s International trade in terms of volume, composition, and direction. Class 12 Geography solution focuses on the following topics;

    • Changing pattern of the composition of India’s import and export
    • Strategies adopted by India to double its share in the international trade
    • Role of seaports as gateways of international trade with examples
    • Marking major seaports and international airports in India

Chapter 9: Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems 

Pollution is an ever-threatening issue that has been haunting us for ages. Today, the toxicity in the air has crossed severe levels resulting in an increase in the overall global temperature of the earth. Chapter 9 of class 12 Geography explains the causes and consequences of different types of pollution in India and effective measures to manage it.

Part C: Practical Work in Geography Part II

Chapter 1: Data-Its Source and Compilation

When you are a student of Geography, collecting data plays a crucial role in understanding various concepts taught in class 12 Geography. Chapter 1 of Part C, Geography focuses on understanding the importance of data and its uses. The class 12 Geography Solutions also covers all the topics that are covered in this chapter, that are;

    • Define Data
    • Primary and Secondary Sources of Data
    • List of several sources of data

Chapter 2: Data Processing

Chapter 2 of Part C class 12 Geography helps students calculate central tendency measures and compare mean, median, and mode. Students would be learning about, Calculation of the mean rainfall of your city, the List of ten Himalayan peaks with their heights, Calculation of the media height using the data with the help of specialised class 12 Geography solutions. 

Chapter 3: Graphical Representation of Data

When you are treading towards planning for people while adapting to nature, collecting data and representing it in an understandable manner becomes crucial. Chapter 3 of Part C class 12 Geography trains students to represent the data graphically using different techniques. Students will be learning all this in class 12 Geography Solutions as well and would be covering the following topics;

    • Construct a line graph to represent the growth rate of population in India 1901-2011
    • Construct a polygraph to compare the growth of the sex ratio in different states
    • Construct a line and bar graph to represent the average monthly rainfall and temperature of Delhi
    • Construct a multiple-bar diagram to represent the decadal literacy rate, male literacy and female literacy
    • Draw a pie diagram to show India’s export to major regions of the world 2010-2011
    • Construct a dot map to show India’s population 2011
    • Construct a choropleth map to show state-wise variation in population density 

Chapter 4: Use of Computer in Data Processing and Mapping 

It is a digital world today. What took hours and hours earlier can easily be done in minutes with the help of the computer. Chapter 4 of Part C Geography Class 12 is for students to understand the need to capture data from different sources and integrate them using a computer supported by geo-processing tools. Class 12 Geography solutions cover the following topics;

    • Explain what Spatial Information Technology or GIS is
    • Advantages of GIS over manual methods
    • Components of GIS
    • Spatial Data formats
    • Raster Data Format
    • Vector Data Format 
    • Spatial Analysis
    • Overlay and Buffer Analysis 

Chapter 5: Field Surveys

Data and graphical representation are the core of planning, starting with field surveys. A surveyor goes on the ground, meets people, asks them relevant questions, and collects data, which is then analysed to make policies around it. Chapter 5 of Part C Geography Class 12 helps students understand various field survey forms. 

Chapter 6: Spatial Information Technology

‘Spatial’ refers to geographical space defined as an address, agricultural holdings etc. Chapter 6 of Part C Geography Class 12 helps students learn the concept of Spatial Information System, its technology called Geographical Information System.

CBSE Class 12 Geography Chapter-wise Marks Weightage

Fundamental of Human Geography

Chapter Marks
Human Geography 3
The World Population Density Distribution and Growth 8
Human Development
Primary Activities 19
Secondary Activities
Tertiary and Quaternary Activities
Transport, Communication and Trade
International Trade
Map Work 5
Total 35

India People and Economy

Chapter Marks
Population Distribution Density Growth and Composition 5
Human Settlements 3
Land Resources and Agriculture 10
Water Resources
Mineral and Energy Resources
Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context
Transport and Communication 7
International Trade
Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems 5
Map Work 5
Total 35

Geography Practical & Internal Assessment

Chapter Marks
Data-its source and Compilation 18
Data Processing
Graphical Representation Data
Spatial Information Technology 7
Practical Record Book and Viva Voice 5
Total 30

Key Features of Geography Class 12 NCERT Solutions

Class 12 is a game changer in the life of students. It is a crossroad from where students decide their path ahead. Class 12 Geography NCERT solutions help class 12 Geography students understand the Geography class 12 question answers pattern so they are exam-ready. These Gurukul By Oswal's class 12 NCERT Geography solutions are perfect study material for 12th class Geography students who are contemplating opportunities in Geography and can get a lot of backing with these NCERT solutions of class 12 Geography. Our class 12 NCERT Geography solutions cover all the chapters from the class 12 NCERT Geography textbook. Following are the key points that make these Geography class 12 solutions a must-have with you:

    • No fee: The class 12 Geography NCERT solutions are free for all students. Geography class 12 students do not have to pay any amount or subscription fee to access these solutions.
    • Compatible with all devices: Whether you use these class 12 Geography NCERT solutions on a phone, tab, desktop, or laptop, these solutions will be compatible with all types of devices.
    • Class 12 Geography NCERT solutions by highly-skilled Subject experts: Geography is a vast field with various interrelated topics that need eyes of precision to cater to the requirements of class 12 students. We have a team of highly skilled subject matter experts who curate these solutions with utmost meticulousness. 

FAQs on Class 12 Geography NCERT Solutions 

Ans: The class 12 Geography NCERT solutions by Oswal Publishers provide a pattern that aligns with the CBSE marking scheme for class 12 students. It will help you understand the correct way to answer the question based on the weightage of each topic.

Ans: Map work holds a weightage of 10 marks (Part A & B combined). It is advisable for class 12 Geography students to learn the maps carefully and earn these 10 marks easily.

Ans: Though it is not necessary that the class 12 exams would cover all the chapters from the NCERT class 12 Geography textbook, you must prepare all the chapters and be vary of the marking scheme that CBSE has released. Prepare according to the marking scheme and do not leave any topic even if it holds a weightage of 1 mark.

Ans: Scoring 100 in any subject is not that difficult. If you prepare well, you can score well in your Geography examination. Class 12 Geography NCERT solutions will help you in your goal to score a 100 in Geography too. All the best!