NCERT Solutions For Class 12 Geography Part B Chapter 5 Mineral and Energy Resources

Q. Choose the right answers of the followings from the given options:

(i) In which one of the following States are the major oil fields located?

  • (a) Assam
  • (b) Bihar
  • (c) Rajasthan
  • (d) Tamil Nadu
  • Ans. (a) Assam

(ii) At which one of the following places was the first atomic power station started?

  • (a) Kalpakkam
  • (b) Narora
  • (c) Rana Pratap Sagar
  • (d) Tarapur
  • Ans. (d) Tarapur

(iii) Which one of the following minerals is known as brown diamond?

  • (a) Iron
  • (b) Lignite
  • (c) Manganese
  • (d) Mica
  • Ans. (b) Lignite

(iv) Which one of the following is non-renewable source of energy?

  • (a) Hydel
  • (b) Solar
  • (c) Thermal
  • (d) Wind power
  • Ans. (c) Thermal

Q. Answer the following questions in about 30 words:

(i) Give an account of the distribution of mica in India.

Ans. In India, mica is produced in the Hazaribagh Plateau belt of Jharkhand; Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh; Telangana and the Jaipur- Bhilwara-Udaipur belt of Rajasthan; Mysuru and Hasan districts of Karnataka; Coimbatore, Tiruchirapalli, Madurai and Kanniyakumari in Tamil Nadu; Alleppey in Kerala; Ratnagiri in Maharashtra; Purulia and Bankura in West Bengal and Madhya Pradesh.

(ii) What is nuclear power? Mention the important nuclear power stations in India.

Ans. Nuclear power is the power that is obtained by the energy released from nuclear reactor through nuclear fission process i.e; splitting of nucleus of radioactive minerals like Uranium and Thorium.

The energy released from the nuclear fission is used to heat water, the steam released from it is used to rotate a turbine which generates electricity. The important nuclear power projects are Tarapur (Maharashtra), (Rajasthan), Kalpakkam (Tamil Nadu), Narora (Uttar Pradesh), Kaiga (Karnataka), Rawatbhata near Kota and Kakarapara (Gujarat).

(iii) Name non-ferrous metal. Discuss their spatial distribution.

Ans. India is poorly endowed with non-ferrous metallic minerals for e.g. aluminium, copper, lead, nickel, tin, titanium and zinc.

Bauxite is found mainly in tertiary deposits and is associated with laterite rocks occurring extensively either on the plateau or hill ranges of peninsular India and also in the coastal tracts of the country. Odisha happens to be the largest producer of Bauxite. Kalahandi and Sambalpur are the leading producers. The patlands of
Jharkhand in Lohardaga have rich deposits. Gujarat, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra are other major producers. Chhattisgarh has bauxite deposits in Amarkantak plateau while Katni-Jabalpur area and Balaghat in Madhya Pradesh have important deposits of bauxite.

The copper deposits mainly occur in Singhbhum district in Jharkhand, Balaghat district in Madhya Pradesh and Jhunjhunu and Alwar districts in Rajasthan.

(iv) What are non-conventional sources of energy ?

Ans. The non-conventional sources of energy are renewable and non-polluting source of energy and which more equitably distributed and environment-friendly. These energy sources provide more sustained, renewable, eco-friendly and cheaper energy after the initial cost is taken care of. For example – Solar, wind, hydrogeothermal
and biomass.

Q. Answer the following questions in about 150 words.

(i) Write a detailed note on the Petroleum resources of India.

Ans. Crude petroleum occurs in sedimentary rocks of the tertiary period. Oil exploration and production was systematically taken up after the Oil and Natural Gas Commission was set up in 1956. Till then, the Digboi in Assam was the only oil producing region but the scenario has changed after 1956. In recent years, new oil
deposits have been found at the extreme western and eastern parts of the country. In Assam, Digboi, Naharkatiya and Moran are important oil producing areas. The major oil fields of Gujarat are Ankaleshwar, Kalol, Mehsana, Nawagam, Kosamba and Lunej. Mumbai High which lies 160 km off Mumbai was discovered in 1973 and production commenced in 1976. Oil and natural gas have been found in exploratory wells in Krishna-Godavari and Kaveri basin on the east

(ii) Write an essay on hydel power in India.

  • Ans. Hydel power is a renewable energy resource as it uses the earth’s water cycle to generate electricity.
  • 1. Water evaporates from the earth’s surface to form clouds, precipitates back to the earth and flows towards the ocean. The movement of water as it flows downstream creating kinetic energy that can be converted into electricity.
  • 2. A hydroelectric power plant having a atom which built across a large river to creat a resources and a power plant where kinetic energy of water converted into electric energy. In power plant turbine play crucial role where mechanical energy of turbine (when water hits the turbine) drive the generator to produce a electrical energy.
  • 3. The total hydroelectric power potential in India is estimated to be about 150,000 MW equivalent to 84,000 MW at a 60% load factor while the potential of small hydropower projects is estimated at about 15,000 MW.
  • 4. India is blessed with an immense amount of hydel potential, ranking 5th in exploitable hydro-potential in the global scenario. According to the assessment made by the CEA, India is endowed with economically exploitable hydro-power potential to be tune of 148700 MW of installed capacity.
  • 5. Thus, in totality, India owns a hydel-potential of about 250000 MW.