NCERT Solutions For Class 12 Geography Part B Chapter 6 Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context
65. Choose the right answers of the following from the given options.
(i) Regional planning relates :
(ii) ITDP refers to which one of the following ?
(iii) Which one of the following is the most crucial factor for sustainable development in Indira Gandhi Command Area?
66. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.
(i) What are the social benefits of ITDP in the Bharmaur tribal region?
Ans. The social benefits derived from ITDP in the Bharmaur tribal region include the following:
- Tremendous improvement in the literacy rate and sex ratio.
- Decline in the child marriages and gender inequality
- The female literacy rate increased from 1.88% in 1971 to 65% in 2011.
- Traditional subsistence agricultural-cumpastoral economy, having emphasis on foodgrains and livestock production, upgraded to increased cultivation of pulses and other cash crops in the last three decades of 20th century,
- The declining importance of pastoralism in the economy.
(ii) Define the concept of sustainable development.
Ans. Brundtland Commission report (also known as Brundtland Report) ‘Our Common Future’ in 1987 defines sustainable development as a “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It reflected the concern of people about undesirable effects of industrial development on the environment. Sustainable development takes care of ecological, social and economic aspects of development during the present times and pleads for conservation of resources to enable the future generations to use these resources.
(iii) What are the positive impacts of irrigation on Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area?
- Indira Gandhi Canal, previously known as the Rajasthan Canal, is one of the largest canal systems in India.
- The canal originates at Harike barrage in Punjab and runs parallel to Pakistan border at an average distance of 40 km in Thar Desert (Marusthali) of Rajasthan.
- The introduction of canal irrigation in this dry land has transformed its ecology, economy and society.
- The availability of soil moisture for a longer period of time and various afforestation and pasture development programmes under CAD have resulted in greening the land.
- This has also helped in reducing wind erosion and siltation of canal systems.
- It has led to tremendous increase in agricultural and livestock productivity. Spread of canal irrigation has led to increase in cultivated area and intensity of cropping.
67. Answer the following questions in about 150 words.
(i) Write short notes on drought-prone area programme. How does this programme help in the development of dryland agriculture in India?
Ans. The Drought-Prone Area Programme was initiated during the Fourth Five Year Plan with the objectives of providing employment to the people in drought-prone areas and creating productive assets. It has been observed that it is largely confined to the development of agriculture and allied sectors with the major focus on restoration of ecological balance.
The Drought-Prone Area Programme helped in the development of dryland agriculture in India.
- It emphasized on the construction of labourintensive civil works, irrigation projects, land development programmes, afforestation, grassland development and creation of basic rural infrastructure, such as electricity, roads, market, credit and services.
- It includes strategies of development of the areas, such as - adoption of integrated watershed development approach at the micro-level, focus on restoration of ecological balance between water, soil, plants, and human and animal population, etc.
(ii) Suggest the measures of promotion of sustainability in Indira Gandhi canal command area.
Ans. Measures for promotion of sustainability in ‘Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area’ are as follows:
- Rigorous implementation of water management policy is the first and foremost requirement of this project.
- Adoption of plantation crops such as citrus fruits, instead of water-intensive crops.
- In order to reduce the conveyance loss of water, few important programmes shall be taken into account such as the CAD (Command Area Development) programmes i.e., the lining of watercourses, land development and levelling.
- Warabandi system (means equal distribution of canal water in the command area of the outlet).
- The areas should be reclaimed that got affected by waterlogging and soil salinity.
- Promoting eco-development in the fragile environment especially in Stage-II command area through afforestation, shelterbelt plantation and pasture development activities.
- To promote social sustainability by providing financial and institutional support for land cultivation to the land allottees of poor background.
- Other sectors of the economy in addition to agriculture, animal husbandry and allied activities should be encouraged for
attaining economic sustainability.
NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Part B Chapter 6 Free PDF Download
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