NCERT Solutions For Class 12 Geography Part A Chapter 1 Human Geography - Nature and Scope

Q. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.

(i) Which one of the following statements does not describe geography?

  • (a) An integrative discipline
  • (b) Study of the inter-relationship between humans and the environment
  • (c) Subjected to dualism
  • (d) Not relevant in the present time due to the development of technology

Ans. (d) Not relevant in the present time due to the development of technology

(ii) Which one of the following is not a source of geographical information?

  • (a) Traveller’s accounts
  • (b) Old maps
  • (c) Samples of rock materials from the moon
  • (d) Ancient epics

Ans. (c) Samples of rock materials from the moon.

(iii) Which one of the following is the most important factor in the interaction between people and the environment?

  • (a) Human intelligence
  • (b) People’s perception
  • (c) Technology
  • (d) Human brotherhood

Ans. (c) Technology

(iv) Which one of the following is not an approach in human geography? 

  • (a) Areal differentiation
  • (b) Spatial organisation
  • (c) Quantitative revolution
  • (d) Exploration and description

Ans. (c) Quantitative revolution

Q. Answer the following questions in about 30 words. 

(i) Define human geography. 

Ans. Human geography is a sub-field of geography along with physical geography. Human geography studies the inter-relationship between the physical environment and sociocultural environment created by human beings through mutual interaction with each other.

(ii) Name some sub-fields of human geography.

  • Ans. The sub-fields of human geography are:
  • 1. Behavioural Geography
  • 2. Geography of Social Well-being
  • 3. Geography of Leisure
  • 4. Cultural Geography
  • 5. Gender Geography
  • 6. Historical Geography
  • 7. Medical Geography
  • 8. Urban Geography
  • 9. Electoral Geography
  • 10. Military Geography
  • 11. Population Geography
  • 12. Settlement Geography
  • 13. Geography of Resources
  • 14. Geography of Agriculture
  • 15. Geography of Industries
  • 16. Geography of Marketing
  • 17. Geography of Tourism
  • 18. Geography of International Trade

(iii) How is human geography related to other social sciences?

Ans. Human geography deals with the interaction of human beings with the environment. Since no human action can possibly be viewed in isolation, the discipline of human geography, inevitably, had to establish close interlinks, and often overlaps, with other sister disciplines of social sciences.

Q. Answer the following questions in not more than 150 words.

(i) Explain the naturalisation of humans.

Ans. Naturalisation of humans refers to the human condition when human actions were dictated by nature. It is also called ‘environmental determinism’. In the early, or rather primitive, stages of very low technological development, humans – who were unable to understand the forces of nature - were afraid of nature’s fury and worshipped it. They lived their lives in complete harmony with their natural environment, and viewed nature as a powerful force, revered and conserved it. They directly dependent on nature for resources to sustain themselves. For such societies, the physical environment becomes the “Mother Nature”.

But over time, humans began to understand the forces of nature with the help of advanced technology. They began to move from a state of necessity to a state of freedom and began to create new possibilities with the resources obtained from the environment. The imprints of human activities are now created everywhere. Slowly, nature is being humanised or it is already.

(ii) Write a note on the scope of human geography.

Ans. Human geography is a subset of Geography. It concerns itself with the relationship between the physical/natural and the human worlds, the spatial distributions of human phenomena and how they came about, the social and economic differences between different parts of the world. The objective is to understand the earth as the
home of human beings and to study all those elements which have sustained them.

Ellen C. Semple gave an interesting definition is, “Human geography is the study of the changing relationship between the unresting man and the unstable earth.” The relation is, thus, dynamic – it changes/evolves with time. Early humans lived in close harmony with nature, as they were frightened by the forces of nature – which they could not understand. Over centuries, these very same humans developed technologies that enabled them to gain knowledge of nature. Soon, technology outstripped with nature. If humans were ‘naturalised’ earlier, now nature was ‘humanised’.