NCERT Solutions For Class 12 Geography Part B Chapter 7 Transport and Communication

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    115. Choose the right answers of the following from the given options.

    (i) In how many zones has the Indian Railways system been divided?

    • (a) 9
    • (b) 12
    • (c) 16
    • (d) 14
    • Ans. (c) 16

    (ii) On which river and between which two places does the National Water Way No. 1 lie?

    • (a) The Brahmaputra, Sadiya-Dhubri
    • (b) The Ganga, Haldia-Allahabad
    • (c) West Coast Canal, Kottapuram to Kollam
    • (d) None of the above
    • Ans. (b) The Ganga, Haldia-Allahabad

    (iii) In which of the following year, the first radio programme was broadcast?

    • (a) 1911
    • (b) 1936
    • (c) 1927
    • (d) 1923
    • Ans. (d) 1923

    116. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

    (i) Which activity does transportation convey? Name three major modes of transportation.

    Ans. Transport conveys the basic activity of mobility. Mobility is a basic need of humans which helps in trade and other activities. Transport is instrumental in bringing out about increased mobility. The three major modes of transportation are land, water and air. Land includes roadway, railway and ropeway.

    (ii) Discuss advantages and disadvantages of pipeline transportation.

    Ans. Advantages:

    1. Liquids and gases can be transported easily at low costs. Even solids can be transported in form of sluriy.
    2. No need of fuel is required. It is an eco friendly method. Gradient plays the main role in transportation of the material.
    3. Pipelines can be laid in the high altitude, rugged areas, even under the sea.
    4. Material can be transported between distant areas continuously without aid of human agent carrying it from one place to another.


    1. Cost of laying the pipelines is very high. People cannot be transported.
    2. Leakage in the pipelines can cause serious disasters especially in case of transportation of material like petroleum.
    3. Pipelines are very probable target of terrorist attacks; therefore safety is major issue.
    4. All solid substances cannot be transported.

    (iii) What do you mean by ‘communication?

    Ans. Communication is transmission of facts, words and information using various means of communication. It is disseminating of ideas, facts, information and knowledge. Communication has been present since very initial stages of human development. Earlier there were primitive means of communication like beating of drums, sparrows etc. Now with communication revolution modem methods of communication like Internet, mobile telephony are widespread and have made communication over long distances easier and faster. 

    (iv) Discuss the contribution of Air India and Indian in the air transport of India.

    Ans. Air transport in India made a beginning in 1911 when airmail operation commenced over a little distance of 10 km between Allahabad and Naini. But its real development took place in post-independent period. The air transport in India is managed by two corporations, Air India and Indian Airlines after nationalisation.
    Air India provides international service for both passengers and cargo. In 2005, it carried 12.2 million passengers and 4.8 lakh metric tonnes of cargo. Indian looks after air transport at national level. In 2005, domestic movement involved 24.3 million passengers and 20 lakh metric tonnes of cargo.

    The country’s largest state-owned domestic carrier, Indian Airlines dropped the word ‘Airlines’ from its name and is known as ‘Indian’ w.e.f. December 8,2005. The new brand name ‘Indian’ now appears on both sides of the fuselage. The logo on the orange tail depicting ‘IA’ has also been changed. It has been replaced by a new logo which is a partly visible blue wheel and is inspired by the Sun Temple at Konark (Odisha), symbolising timeless motion, convergence and divergence. It also embodies strength as well as trust that has stood the test of time.

    117. Answer the following questions in about 150 words:

    (i) Which are the chief means of transportation in India? Discuss the factors affecting their development.

    Ans. The important means of transport in India are— Land, air and water. Each mode of transportation contributes to the development of economy. Each provides a strong support for setting up industries and link even the remotest areas. All the means of transport compete and compliment each other.

    1. Land transport comprises road, rail and pipeline. Use of railways for carrying heavy and bulky goods along with the large number of passengers over long distances has led to the development of a dense network of railways. Within the country the network is relatively less dense in the hilly, forested and desert areas. Roads play an important role in linking the interior areas with the markets and urban centres. Their importance in facilitating door-to- door services over short distances has led to development of a well knit network of roadways.
    2. Water transport is an ideal means for engaging in international trade through long and indented coastline of India. Inland waterway also links the different regions within the country efficiently. It is the cheapest means for bulky cargo.
    3. Air transport has become very important means of rapid and frequent movement of people and light cargo over long distances. Role of private airlines has made the air transport trickle down to wider sections of economy. Budgets Airlines have changed the aviation scenario in India. Air transport is important in inaccessible areas, during calamities and for rapid connectivity.

    (ii) Give a detailed account of the development of railways in India and highlight their importance.

    Ans. Indian railways network is one of the longest in the world. It facilitates the movement of both freight and passengers and contributes to the growth of economy. Indian Railway was introduced in 1853, when a line was constructed from Bombay to Thane covering a distance of 34 km. It is the largest government undertaking in the country. Its network length is 63,221 km. It is very large size and puts lots of pressure on a centralised railway management system. Thus, in India, the railway system has been divided into sixteen zones. Indian Railways has launched extensive programme to convert the metre and narrow gauges to broad gauge. Moreover, steam engines have been replaced by diesel and electric engines. This step has increased the speed as well as the haulage capacity.

    The replacement of steam engines run by coal has also improved the environment of the stations. Metro rail has revolutionised the urban transport system in Kolkata and Delhi. Replacement of diesel buses by CNG run vehicles along with introduction of metro is a welcome step towards controlling the air pollution in urban centres.

    The most significant development has been the development of Konkan Railway along the western coast providing a direct link between Mumbai and Mangalore.

    (iii) Describe the role of roads in the economic development of India.

    Ans. Roads serve as the lifeline of Indian trade. They connect the consumers with producers that is they connect urban and rural centers. Rural centers are producers of agricultural goods which are consumed by them and are transported to urban centers because they do not have production of agricultural commodities. On the other hand urban centers produce consumer products and supply them to the rural areas. Most of the intra national trade of India is carried out through roads. Since roads connect different areas, they help in boosting up of trade by joining the industrial areas with raw material producing areas, consumers with producers.

    The government has categorised various road types which are headed by different authorities. The largest bulk of transportation and trade is carried out through national highways which connect major cities, ports and capitals. Following national highways, there are state highways, district roads and village roads which connect smaller administrative units and facilitate economic activity at micro level. Although most of the India’s international trade is carried out through airways and seaways but construction of border roads has helped in increasing the trade with the neighbouring countries thus providing an impetus to the international trade.

    Increased connectivity of roads has not only increased trade of major industries but also has helped in establishing small scale and medium scale industries by providing them access to the closest markets. Footloose industries which depend largely on roads, are able to prosper because of the development of roads. Roads have helped in connecting the interiors of the country to the main parts and thus expanding the economy. It was due to the development of roads that British were able to penetrate and exploit the interiors of the country. Roads supplement the ports and airways. Ports and airways are major means of India’s international trade, but to connect the interiors to the ports and airports, a good working connection of roads is must, so that the products which are traded can circulate within the interiors of the country. Therefore roads play a pivoted role in connecting all other means of transportation, since it is the only means of transportation which provides door to door service.

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