Sample Paper Geography
(i) (a) The most important settlement in the map extract is Dantiwada because it is the largest settlement with various metalled road present there besides other amenities such as post office, over head tanks, aqueducts, etc.
(b) Dantiwada gets its supply of water from the perennial overhead tanks (represented by blue dots in 3083) and perennial water source (3284) and a perennial water channel (2983).
(ii) (a) They stand for relative height. The relative height of sand is 8 m in grid square 2978 and 18m in grid square 2976 respectively from the surrounding surface.
(b) These numbers are called kilometer stones or milestones. They are marked on a metalled road to make the people aware of how much have they have travelled or how far they have come.
(iii) The climate experienced by the given region is tropical monsoon. The region depicted here is semiarid region; broken ground and presence of sand dunes support the statement.
(iv) Jorapura from Vaghrol – North. Ramsida from Vaghrol – Northeast.
(v) Perennial water source is represented by blue colour and could be seen in grid square 3284 and 3384
(i) (a) Western disturbances
(ii) (d) All of these
(iii) (b) 100 cm
(iv) (a) Inundation canals
(v) (a) Waste is necessary as it improves the quality of air.
(vi) (b) There are about 01 lakh km of State Highways in India.
In electrolytic reduction of alumina, oxygen is produced at anode. This oxygen oxidizes anode (which is made up of graphite) to initially give carbon monoxide, which when further combines with oxygen produces carbon dioxide gas.
(iv) (a) Ionic solid
1. The National Highways connect one state with the other. These are built and maintained by the Central Government. There are about 52000 km of National Highways.
2. The State Highways connect the state capitals with district headquarters and other towns. There are 03 lakh km of State Highways in India. These play a major role in the development of the state.
(vii) (d) All of these
The wastes can be reduced by the change of process, waste concentration and segregation of waste.
(viii) (b) Natural Gas
Natural gas is the clean energy resource which is found in association with petroleum.
(ix) (c) 65%
1. In India, agriculture occupies 65% of the total cropped area.
2. With the advent of Green Revolution technology, India focused on the goal of food grain selfsufficiency.
3. The important crops grown in India are rice, wheat, pulses, millets, barley, jowar, gram, oats, maize, rye, etc. and fall in the category of food crops called Cereals.
(x) (d) Coal
• A mineral from which we get metals is known as Metallic Mineral. Examples: Iron, copper, aluminium, gold, lead, tin etc.
• Coal is a non-metallic mineral.
(i) Kal Baisakhi is the name given to the local winds that blow during the hot season in East India. It means “the calamity of the month of Baisakhi”. They are also called “North Westers” because they usually blow in the north-west direction. These winds are accompanied with thunder storms and bring heavy rainfall. Mango showers are the name of local winds that blow in South India during April/May. These winds bring a little rainfall and are good for the growth of mango trees. Thus, it is called “Mango showers”.
(ii) (a) Jute and Rice. (b) Wheat and Barley.
(iii) (a) Chennai get rainfall from the North-East monsoon during October-November, which is not very strong and hence receives less rain, whereas hiruvananthapuram receives very heavy rain from the South-West monsoon, which are more powerful.
(b) Thar is located at the leeward side of the Aravali hills, which are parallel to the South-West monsoon winds. Thus, Aravali hills do not help to bring rain in the Thar region.
(c) Mangaluru is situated on the Western side of the Western Ghats. This place is the windward side of the physical barrier with regard to the current of the Arabian Sea branch of South-West monsoons during the summer monsoons. So, it receives heavy rainfall. On the contrary, Mysuru lies on the Eastern side or the leeward side of the Western Ghats. Thus, it receives less rainfall.
(iv) (a) The annual rainfall in station A is 68.4 cm.
(b) The annual range of temperature in station B is (32.8° – 23.1°) C = 9.7° C.
(c) Retreating monsoon winds bring most of the rainfall to station B. This is because station B has very warm temperatures during winter season, which shows that it is located in the southern costal region of India. It also gets maximum rainfall from October to December, which is the retreating monsoon period.
(i) Difference between Sandy soil and Clayey soil.
|Sandy Soil||Clayey Soil|
|1. Constitute 60% of sand and 10% clay.||Constitute more of than 60% clay.|
|2. Good for cultivation of fruits and vegetables only if some fertiliser is added to it.||Fertility improves on adding sand and chalk to it.|
(ii) (a) Splash erosion takes place in an area in which the soil is pulverised due to heavy drops or hailstones as in case of convectional rainfall.
(b) Sheet erosion takes place in an area in which the rain water takes away the surface layer of topsoil along with it, during heavy rains.
(iii) Soil erosion is the process of removal of topsoil by the various agents of weathering like running water, wind, overgrazing, men, plants and animals, and faulty agricultural methods.
(a) During windy dry season, the upper soil surface of extensive flat lands becomes loose and susceptible to soil erosion by wind due to lack of moisture.
(b) Overgrazing leads to soil erosion by wind as the soil does not have vegetation on it to hold it together and thus, it is directly exposed to winds.
(c) Running water is the primary source of soil erosion. Water carries away the top layer of soil and deposit it at some other place.
(iv) (a) Black soil. (b) Alluvial soil. (c) Red soil.
(i) Tropical Evergreen forests have the following characteristics :
1. They are found in areas having heavy rainfall; thus, they are also called “rain forests”.
2. These forests have a thick ground cover, which is characterised by climbers and epiphytes.
3. The plants in these forests do not shed their leaves and remain green throughout their lifetime; thus, they are known as “evergreen forest”.
(ii) (a) Eucolyptus (b) Sal
(iii) The preventive measures for protecting forest resources are :
(a) Van Mahotsava Programme : It was started in 1950. Under this programme, all the government organisations are suppose to plant trees in the months of July and August.
(b) Afforestation : In this scheme, a programme has been initiated to plant trees in Rajasthan, West Uttar Pradesh and Kutch desert in order to prevent soil erosion.
(c) Reafforestation : Although Slash, Burn or “Jhooming” practice has been stopped in North-East India, indiscriminate cutting of trees is still there without bothering about the destruction of forests.
(iv) (a) Scrub and thorn forests.
(b) Mountain forests.
(c) Tropical Evergreen Forests.
(i) Water conservation is necessary because :
1. There is an increase in the usage or consumption of water.
2. There is a short supply of water.
3. Due to the large-scale pollution of water.
(ii) (a) Canal irrigation.
(b) Canal irrigation/Tank irrigation.
(iii) (a) Despite rains, irrigation is necessary because :
1. Rainfall is seasonal and uneven and crops require a regular supply of water.
2. Some crops require more water than what they receive from the rains.
3. For increasing the production of crops.
4. Boost the agro-based industries.
(b) Drip irrigation is the best method of irrigation because :
1. There is no loss of water due to evaporation.
2. Effective use of water without any wastage.
3. It is possible to customize the flow of water so that every crop receives water.
4. Water is provided to the roots of the crops.
(c) As Karnataka falls under the Deccan Plateau region, it has depressions and hard surface rocks. This makes tank irrigation very convenient. Karnataka do not have perennial rivers and have uneven and rugged and undulating topography. Thus, other sources of irrigation are not possible.
(iv) (a) 1. Rain water supply is readily available for various purposes thus, reducing the dependency on underground water.
2. It improves the quality of ground water by diluting salinity.
(b) States like Andhra Pradesh, Telengana and Tamil Nadu have made rainwater harvesting mandatory.
(c) Rain water harvesting techniques used in Rajasthan is Johads (earthen dams), Kunds (covered underground tanks).
(i) Two metallic minerals : Iron, Copper.
(ii) (a) Anthracite. (b) Barauni.
(iii) (a) Nuclear energy is the energy that holds neutrons and protons together in an atom.
(c) Making paints.
(b) The raw materials for the petrochemical industry are cheaper. They are easily available and not dependent on the traditional raw materials like, metal, wood or agricultural products.
(c) 1. It’s easy to handle and non-combustible. 2. Heat exchanges can be avoided.
(iv) (a) Construction of bridges and railways.
(b) Manufacturing bleaching powder and insecticides.
(i) Difference between Rabi crops and Kharif crops.
|Rabi Crops||Kharif Crops|
|1. They are sown in October-November and are harvested in March-April.||They are sown in June-July and are harvested in October-November.|
|2. The crops mainly include wheat, barley, gram, mustard, etc.||It includes crops like rice, jower, bajra, sugarcane, etc.|
(ii) The climatic requirements for the cultivation of rice are :
1. It requires a temperature in the range of 16°C-20°C in the growing season. The average temperature required by rice is 24°C.
2. At the ripening stage, the temperature required is 18°C-32°C.
3. The Average rainfall required is 150 cm-200 cm.
4. It requires flooded fields in the initial stage of the growing season.
5. Slight rain before ripening is also required.
(iii) (a) Kharif is the crop season in which the ground is prepared in the months of April-May, seeds are sown in June, and harvesting is done in the beginning of November. Rice, Maize, Bajra and pulses are some of the crops grown in Kharif season.
(b) Rabi is the crop season in which the ground is prepared by the end of October or by the beginning of November and harvesting is done in the month of March. Wheat, Barley, Gram and Oilseeds are some of the crops grown in Rabi season.
(c) Zayad is the crop season of summer. Rice, Maize, Groundnut and Fruits are some of the crops that grow in Zayad season.
(iv) (a) Tea is grown on mountain slopes and hills because stagnant water is harmful for the plant and in these places, the extra water is drained off through the slopes.
(b) Ratoon cropping is popular in sugarcane as ratoons mature early as compared to the plant crops. In addition, the cost of cultivation is also low for ratoon cropping in sugarcane.
(c) Use of poor quality of seeds, dependence on monsoons, poverty, illiteracy, use of primitive methods of agriculture and deforestation are some of the reasons for the low agricultural yield in India as compared to the world standards.
(i) The resources necessary for the development of Iron and Steel industry are iron-ore; fuel—coal, thermal power; ferro alloys—tungsten, cobalt, manganese; scrap—waste material; flux—limestone, dolomite or gypsum.
(ii) Cotton textile industry has developed around Mumbai because this area has cheap power (as it has access to hydroelectric power), excellent harbour facilities, skilled and unskilled labour, humid climate and black soil for the growth of cotton crops, goods market for finished goods, etc.
(iii) (a) Molasses. (b) Press mud. (c) Bagasse.
(iv) (a) West Bengal is the largest jute producing state of India. Hooghly and Rishra are the two centres of jute industry in West Bengal.
(b) Two problems faced by the jute industry in India are :
1. Problem of high prices.
2. Competition from other countries
3. Lack of irrigation facilities.
(c) Jute is a tropical crop which require high temperature between 24°C to 35°C.
(i) (a) Two advantages of inland water transport are:
1. Inland water transport is considered as the cheapest mean of transport for both passenger and cargo traffic.
2. Inland water transport consumes very less energy as compared to other means of transport.
(b) Because the seasonal variation in the volume of water, due to monsoon rain, affects the navigability of rivers.
(ii) Undoubtedly, the road transportation is very common in India because:
1. Roadways feed other modes of transportation.
2. Roads provide door to door facilities.
3. Even the remote areas of deserts or mountains can be accessible through road network.
(iii) (a) Because north-eastern part of India has geographically unfavourable conditions to support road network. This region mainly consists of hilly terrain, huge rainfall and thick forest cover.
(b) Railways help in administration of our country. It helps in easy movement of heavy defense equipment, troops, police and military within the country.
(c) A good transport network helps in boosting the agriculture and industrial sector. A good transport network is the basis to develop national and international trade.
(iv) (a) Two disadvantages of airways are:
1. Airways are among the mode source of transportation.
2. Aircrafts cannot carry bulky equipment and goods.
(b) Despite its exorbitant price, air travel has been gaining popularity in recent years as airways are fast, comfortable and time saving.
(i) When grass, leaves, food waste, manure and woody material are placed on the ground, microorganisms from the ground begin to eat the material. The breakdown of this material is speeded up with assistance from air (oxygen), water, and sunlight. Generally, it will take several months for the material to become compost and that will also depend on how often you turn the pile of material.
(ii) Waste can be reused by recycling it and making new product from it e.g., shoes from old tyres, water bags from leather etc.
(iii) The recycling symbol with the three arrows represents the three steps in the recycling process.
1. Collection and processing of recyclable materials,
2. Manufacturing of those materials into new products, and
3. Products sold to consumers which then starts the process over again.
(iv) Plastics are recycled by plastic manufacturers. Plastic is non-biodegradable. The bonds of carbon in plastic are impossible to break down through a physical or chemical process. They have to be incinerated, recycled or buried in landfills. The plastic bags which are extensively used in India are made from recycled plastic. The recycled plastic bags are harmful because the melting of plastic and plastic products breaks some polymer chains into smaller units which are harmful for our environment as well as human beings.
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