Oswal 61 Sample Question Papers ICSE Class 10 History & Civics Solutions
(i) (b) 25
There are three qualifications needed for a member to be elected to the Lok Sabha; one of them is he/ she should not be less than 25 years of age; second is he/she should be a citizen of India; third is he/she should not be a proclaimed criminal.
(ii) (c) Y
The qualifications for becoming a judge of the Supreme Court are:
- Must have served as a judge of a High Court for 5 years.
- Must have been an advocate in a High Court for at least 10 years.
- A distinguished jurist
(iii) (b) 14 days
In financial matters, the power of the Rajya Sabha is negligible as no Money Bill can be introduced in the Rajya Sabha. But Rajya Sabha can hold money bill up to 14 days.
(iv) (c) Lok Adalat
Lok Adalat is one of the alternative dispute redressal mechanisms, it is the forum where dispute are settled quickly without fees.
(v) (c) P and R
The President of India and the judges of the Supreme Court can only be removed by the procedure of impeachment.
(vi) (c) both (a) and (b)
The President is elected indirectly by a method of proportional representation by means of single transferable vote. It is important to note that the ordinary citizens play no part in this election.
(vii) (c) (A) is true but (B) is false.
The Gandhi-Irwin Pact led to the temporary suspension of the Civil Disobedience Movement.
However, after the failure of the Second Round Table Conference, the movement was completely stopped.
(viii) (a) The Central government will become all-powerful and can legislate over the State List as well.
There is a provision for the imposition of the National Emergency under the Article 352 of the Indian Constitution. Under its imposition, the nature of the government becomes unitary as the federal government becomes all-powerful.
(ix) (b) 1878
The Vernacular Press Act was passed in 1878 by Lord Lytton. It forbade vernacular newspapers to publish any material that might excite feelings of dissatisfaction against the British Government.
(x) (a) Fascism
The man shown in the above picture is the Italian Dictator Benito Mussolini who made the Fascist ideology popular in Italy.
(xi) (d) Mahatma Gandhi
The Young India was a weekly journal which was published by Mahatma Gandhi from the year 1919- 1931 to propogate the ideology of Satyagraha and non-violence.
(xii) (a) 1914-1918
The First World War was fought across the world from 1914 to 1918 AD. It had engulfed almost the whole world. It was fought on a wide scale on the land, the sea and in the air.
(xiii) (a) 13th April 1919
The massacre happened on 13th April 1919, at the Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar, Punjab.
(xiv) (b) March, 1919
Mussolini formed the Fascist Party in March 1919 which attracted people from all sections of society– ex-soldiers, farmers, workers, salaried persons and the youth.
(xv) (a) New York
The headquarters of the United Nations is located in New York, USA.
(xvi) (d) All of these
The current focus of UNICEF is on child survival and development, basic education and gender equality, child protection from violence and abuse.
(i) Discretionary Powers:
- When no party gains majority in the Lok Sabha, the President, using his/her discretionary power, appoints the Prime Minister.
- After the vote of no-confidence is passed against the prevailing Government, the President may dissolve the Parliament or ask the leader of another party to prove its majority on the floor of the House.
(ii) The conditions for anti-defection law are as follows:
- If a member voluntarily relinquishes his membership from the party on whose ticket he got elected.
- An independent member of a Parliament or State Legislature will be disqualified if he/she joins another party after his/her election.
- There would be no disqualification, where a member claims that he/she belongs to a group representing a faction arising from a split and the group consists of not less than 1/3rd of the members of the political party. (Any two)
(iii) 1. The Vernacular Press Act forbade the vernacular papers from publishing articles against the British Government.
2. This Act was not applicable to English newspapers. In 1882, this Act was repealed by Lord Ripon.
(iv) Factors responsible for the growth of Nationalism in India:
- Impact of the British Rule: The British rule brought the whole country under one government and this gave Indians a new sense of political unity. The British established a strong Central Government and they introduced a uniform system of law and administration in the country. They set up industries and trade which brought about an economic unification.
- Discovering India’s Past: The researches of the Europeans scholars, such as Sir William Jones, Charles Wilkins, Max Muller, etc., into the glorious past of India roused the feelings of self- respect, self-confidence, patriotism and nationalism among the Indians. They helped in restoring the rich heritage of ancient literature.
(v) Methods adopted by the Early Nationalists in the National Movement were:
- The first set of method was to educate people in India in modern politics to arouse national political consciousness and to create united public opinion.
- They made use of three P’s—petitions, prayers and protest. They sent petitions, requests and letters of protest to the British government and forced them to look into the problems of the Indians.
(vi) The signatory countries of the Triple Alliance included Germany, Austria – Hungry and Italy.
The rival bloc formed was Triple Entente (Britain, France and Russia).
(vii) There are six official languages of the UN:
(i) The three Legislative powers of the Union Parliament are given below :
- The Parliament is a law-making body and it is considered as the centre of all democratic political process. It has exclusive powers to make laws on all subjects listed in Union List and Concurrent List.
- The Parliament has power of financial control through budget discussion. For Example : Fiscal Policy.
- During a National Emergency, the union system of the government becomes a unitary one by granting Parliament the power to make laws on the 66 subjects of the State List. Also, all state money bills are referred to the Parliament for its approval.
(ii) Exclusive powers of the Lok Sabha :
- Motion of No-Confidence against the government can only be introduced and passed in the Lok Sabha.
- Money bills can only be introduced in the Lok Sabha.
- In case of deadlock between the two Houses over non-financial ordinary bill, the Lok Sabha normally prevails as a strength which includes more than twice as many members as the Rajya Sabha.
(iii) The Speaker is the presiding officer of the Lok Sabha and has following functions :
- He/She regulates proceedings of the House and certifies whether a bill is a money bill or not.
- He/She maintains discipline in the House and puts issues to vote and announces results.
- He/She presides over the joint session of the Parliament, interprets the rules and procedure of the House. His/Her decision in parliamentary matters is final.
- He/She decides the admissibility of all questions and resolutions. He/She communicates the decision of the House to the concerned authorities.
- He/She regulates the admission of visitors and press correspondents to the galleries of the House.
(i) The President is elected indirectly by the members of Electoral College consisting of the elected members of both the Houses of Parliament and the elected members of Legislative Assembly of the states including the National Capital Territory of Delhi and union territory of Puducherry. The election of the President is held in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of single transferable vote and such election is done by secret ballot.
(ii) Discretionary powers of the President are :
- The President appoints incumbent Prime Minister in case of sudden death, where the ruling legislative party is unable to meet immediately to elect a leader.
- When the ruling party would lose majority support in Lok Sabha or when a vote of no-confidence may have been passed against, it requires a President to dissolve the Lok Sabha. Then it is at discretion of the President to whether dissolve the House or ask another party to prove majority on the floor of the House.
- The President can dismiss ministers in case the Council of Ministers loses the confidence of the House but refuses to resign.
(iii) Four Executive Powers of the President are:
- Being the Head of the Union administration, executive orders are issued in the name of the President.
- The President makes appointments to run the government administration.
- For example, appointment of the Prime Minister and Council of Ministers, appointment of Chief Justice and other judges of the Supreme Court, appointment of the Governors of the State, appointment of the Attorney General of India.
- The administration of the union territories and the border areas is the responsibility of the President.
(i) Three cases that come under the Original Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court of India are :
- Disputes between Government of India and any state, or between two or more states.
- The original jurisdiction also extends to cases of violation of Fundamental Rights of Individuals and the court can issue several writs for the enforcement of these rights.
- All cases in which the interpretation of the Constitution is required, can be directly filed in the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court has a power of exclusive jurisdiction in regard to questions asked on constitutional validity of Central laws.
- Transfer of cases from Lower Courts: Under Article 139A, inserted by the 44th Amendment in 1978, the Supreme Court may transfer some cases from one court to another or to itself. It may transfer those cases which are of great importance or involving questions of law.
(ii) Power of Judicial Review:
- The Supreme Court is an interpreter of the Constitution and its decision is final. It holds a power to review law passed by the union or state legislature.
- The Supreme Court can strike down a law that goes against Fundamental Rights; this implicitly gives Supreme Court the power of judicial review.
- The Supreme Court (or High Courts) can examine the constitutionality of any law. If the court arrives at the conclusion that a law is inconsistent with the provisions of the Constitution, such a law is declared as unconstitutional and inapplicable.
(iii) Supreme Court as a Court of Record:
- A court of record is a court whose acts and proceedings are enrolled for perpetual memory and testimony. The judgements are in nature of the precedents i.e., the High Court and other courts are bound to give same decisions in similar cases.
- Article 129 provides that the Supreme Court shall be a court of record and shall have all the powers of such a court including the power to punish for contempt of itself.
- Article 215 contains similar provision in respect of the High Court. Both the Supreme Court as well as the High Courts are courts of record having powers to punish for contempt including the power
to punish for contempt of itself.
(i) Repressive Colonial Policies:
- Lord Lytton organised a Grand Delhi Durbar in 1877 to proclaim Queen Victoria as the Empress of India. Lakhs of rupees were spent on the event but nothing was done for Indians who were in the grip of a famine.
- The Vernacular Press Act (1878) introduced by Lord Lytton forbade vernacular papers to publish any material that might excite feelings of dissatisfaction against the British Government. This Act was not applicable to English newspapers. The editors who opposed the Act were sentenced to jail.
- The maximum age limit for the Indian Civil Service Examination was reduced from 21 to 19 years, thus, making it difficult for the Indians to compete for it.
(ii) Role of Press in developing nationalism amongst Indians:
- It was through the Press that the message of patriotism and modern liberal ideas of liberty, freedom, equality, home rule and independence, spread among the people.
- The Press carried on daily criticism of the unjust policies of the British Government in India and exposed the true nature of British rule in India.
- It made possible the exchange of views among different social groups from different parts of the country.
|Early Nationalists||Radicals (Assertive Nationalists)|
||The Radicals aimed for nothing less than Swaraj as it existed in the United Kingdom.|
||They were assertive in their approach.|
||They denounced British rule and defied it.|
||They rejected British rule and held it responsible for the prevailing poverty of the Indian people.|
(i) The Indian National Army was formed by Mohan Singh, an Indian officer in the British Indian army. He encouraged civilian Indians to join the anti-British organisations. Japan handed over Indian prisoners of war to Mohan Singh, who were inducted into the Indian National Army. The Indian National Army decided to attack British army in India on the invitation of the Indian National Congress and the people of India.
(ii) 1. The Indian National Army was successful in capturing the frontiers of India.
2. It gave tough fight to the British forces and liberated some parts of India.
3. It raised the tricolour flag for the first time on the liberated Indian soil on March 19, 1944.
(iii) 1. Subhash Chandra Bose joined the Indian National Congress and took part in the Non-Cooperation Movement along with Mahatma Gandhi.
2. He started a party named the Forward Bloc with the aim of liberating India with the support of workers and youth.
3. Subhash Chandra Bose became the Supreme Commander of the Indian National Army.
4. He set up the provisional government of free India in Singapore.
5. He captured Andaman and Nicobar Islands and gave tough fight to the British forces.
(i) The main recommendations of the Simon Commission were:
- Dyarchy should be abolished and there should be complete autonomy in the provinces including the department of law and order.
- The Governor-General should be given over-riding power in certain matters like internal security.
- There should be a federal government at the Centre, consisting of British India and the Princely States.
- Provincial Legislative Councils should be enlarged.
(ii) The recommendations of the Nehru Report were:
- Attainment of dominion status to India at an early date.
- Safeguarding the interests of religious minorities and giving them full protection.
- Executive to be made responsible to the Legislature.
- India to be a federation, built on the basis of linguistic provinces and provision of provincial autonomy.
(iii) Gandhiji now decided to launch a ‘Civil Disobedience Movement’ and informed the British about his decision.
Gandhiji started this Movement from Sabarmati Ashram on 12th of March, 1930. 78 people followed him, and many more joined on the way to Dandi.
- Gandhiji broke the Salt Law on the 6th of April, 1930, by making or actually picking up salt from the seashore. He advised people to break the unjust laws of the British.
- He started the Civil Disobedience Movement by breaking the Salt Law as salt was used by everyone, i.e., rich, poor, rural or urban.
- Soon, people started breaking other British laws. Some refused to pay tax while others broke different British laws. People organised Mass Movements in various ways. Women joined in large numbers. People were urged not to buy foreign goods.
(i) The above picture is of 12th March, Mahatma Gandhi began a historic march from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi and a number of people followed him. On the morning of 6th April, Gandhiji violated the Salt Law at Dandi by picking up some salt left by the sea waves.
- The government had the monopoly to manufacture and sell the salt. He had selected to attack the Salt Law because the salt tax affected all sections of society, especially the poor.
- Gandhiji’s breaking of the Salt Law marked the beginning of Civil Disobedience Movement.
(ii) Provisions of the Gandhi-Irwin Pact as a result of the Civil Disobedience Movement : Since the satyagraha could not be suppressed, the Government, through Tej Bahadur Sapru and Jayakar, started negotiations with Gandhiji in jail. This resulted in the signing of a pact by Gandhiji and Lord Irwin, the Viceroy, in March 1931. This is known as the Gandhi-Irwin Pact. The government agreed to :
- Allow people living near seashore to manufacture salt.
- Release all political prisoners, except those guilty of violence.
- Permit peaceful picketing of liquor and foreign cloth shops.
- Restore the confiscated properties of the Congressmen.
(iii) Significance of the Second Round Table Conference: It was attended by Gandhiji as a sole representative of the Congress, according to the terms of the Gandhi-Irwin Pact of 1931. The conference was soon deadlocked on the minority’s issue, with separate electorates being demanded not only by Muslims but also by the Depressed Classes, Sikhs, Indian Christians and Anglo-Indians.
The question of Independence or setting up of a responsible Government receded into the background.
The British government refused to concede the immediate grant of dominion status, Gandhiji returned to India disappointed.
(i) Factors responsible for the formation of the United Nations Organisation:
- International peace: This is one of the most important purposes of establishing UNO. It should take effective measures for the removal of threats of the peace.
- Friendly relations: Its second most important purpose is to develop friendly relations among nations, based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of people.
- International cooperation: Its third most important purpose is to promote international cooperation in solving international problems on economic, social, cultural or humanitarian charter.
- Social equality: To promote international cooperation, respect for human rights and fundamental freedom for all without distinction as to race, sex, language or religion.
(ii) The main principles of the UNO are :
- To respect the sovereign equality of all its members.
- All members should fulfill, in good faith, the obligations assumed by them.
- They would refrain from the threat or use of force against any state.
- They should give United Nations every assistance in any action it takes.
(iii) The United Nations Organisation undertook the three dimensional task of peace-keeping, peacemaking and peace-building in a world which had just been a victim of a devastating world war.
- Thus, the primary function of the UNO is to maintain international peace and security. This includes collective effective measures for prevention and removal of threats to peace, and suppression of acts of aggression or other breaches of peace.
- To bring about through peaceful means, adhering to principles of justice and international law adjustment and settlement of international disputes. Thus, the cause of action for the UNO arises when there is threat to peace, or actual aggression causing breach of peace.
- The means for settling disputes are recommended to be peaceful but where suppression of aggression is required the Security Council is authorised to use military operations.
- For instance in Korea, Palestine, Congo and in the Gulf War, the UN military forces played a decisive role.
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