Oswal 61 Sample Question Papers ICSE Class 10 History & Civics Solutions

Answer 1.

(i) (b) 25

 Explanation :

There are three qualifications needed for a member to be elected to the Lok Sabha; one of them is he/she should not be less than 25 years of age; second is he/she should be a citizen of India; third is he/she should not be a proclaimed criminal.

(ii) (a) Adjournment motion

 Explanation :

The primary object of an adjournment motion is to draw the attention of the House to a recent matter of urgent public importance.

(iii) (b) 14 days

 Explanation :

In financial matters the power of the Rajya Sabha is negligible as no Money Bill can be introduced in the Rajya Sabha. But Rajya Sabha can hold money bill upto 14 days.

(iv) (c) Lok Adalat

 Explanation :

Lok Adalat is one of the alternative dispute redressal mechanisms, it is the forum where dispute are settled quickly without fees.

(v) (a) Supreme Court

 Explanation :

The Supreme Court holds the highest position among courts, it is the last court of a request under the constitution of India and the most noteworthy with the privilege of judicial review.

(vi) (c) both (a) and (b)

 Explanation :

The President is elected indirectly by a method of proportional representation by means of single transferable vote. It is important to note that the ordinary citizens play no part in this election.

(vii) (c) The Parliament

 Explanation :

The salaries and allowances of the ministers are fixed by the Parliament from time to time.

(viii) (a) Lord Dalhousie

 Explanation :

Lord Dalhousie used Doctrine of Lapse for the extension of British territories in India.

(ix) (b) 1878

 Explanation :

The Vernacular Press Act was passed in 1878 because the Vernacular Press criticised the irrational policies of the British rulers.

(x) (c) Dadabhai Naoroji

 Explanation :

Dadabhai Naoroji was a founding member of the India National congress and he is regarded as one of the few people who gave birth to the modern Independence movement of India.

(xi) (d) Mahatma Gandhi

 Explanation :

The Young India was a weekly journal which was published by Mahatma Gandhi from the year 1919- 1931 to propogate the ideology of Satyagraha and non-violence.

(xii) (a) 1914-1918

 Explanation :

The First World War was fought across the world from 1914 to 1918 AD. It had engulfed almost the whole world. It was fought on a wide scale on the land, the sea and in the air.

(xiii) (a) 13th April 1919

 Explanation :

The massacre happened on 13th April 1919, at the Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar, Punjab.

(xiv) (b) March, 1919

 Explanation :

Mussolini formed the Fascist Party in March 1919 which attracted people from all sections of societyexsoldiers, farmers, workers, salaried persons and the youths.

(xvi) (d) all of these

 Explanation :

The current focus of UNICEF is on child survival and development, basic education and gender equality, child protection from violence and abuse.

Answer 2.


Unicameral Legislature Bicameral Legislature
Legislature has only one House, it is called Unicameral Legislature. Legislature is the law making organ of the State. If a legislature has two Houses, Lower House and Upper House, it is called Bicameral Legislature.

(ii) Two military powers of the president of India are :
1. The President is the Supreme Commander of the armed forces of India.
2. He has the power to declare war or conclude peace treaty.

(iii) The Prime Minister performs his/her functions with the help of various specialised committees such as Defence Committee, Planning Committee, etc. These are called Cabinet Committees and composed of experts and play a vital role in decision making bodies.

(iv) October 16, 1905 is regarded as an important day in the history of Indian National Movement because the scheme of partition of Bengal was implemented on this day, which meant to foster the division of Bengal on the basis of religion. East Bengal to be predominantly a Muslim majority state and West Bengal would be a Hindu majority state.

(v) The Sultan was deprived of real authority over his territories and this angered the Muslims in India. The Muslim population in India started a powerful agitation known as the Khilafat Movement, under the leadership of the Ali Brothers (Mohammad Ali and Shaukat Ali), Maulana Azad, Hakim Ajmal Khan and Hasrat Mohani.

(vi) 1. The German Army was restricted to a force of 1,00,000 soldiers and the Navy was limited to 15,000 men and 36 ships.
2. The Air Force and submarines of German Army were banned.

(vii) The founders of NAM were : Jawaharlal Nehru of India, Sukarno of Indonesisa, Josip Broz Tito of Yugoslavia, General Abdul Nasser of Egypt and Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana.



Answer 3.

(i) The three Legislative powers of the Union Parliament are given below :

1. The Parliament is a law-making body and it is considered as the centre of all democratic political process. It has exclusive powers to make laws on all subjects listed in Union List and Concurrent List.

2. The Parliament has power of financial control through budget discussion. For Example : Fiscal Policy.

3. During a National Emergency, the union system of the government becomes a unitary one by granting Parliament the power to make laws on the 66 subjects of the State List. Also, all state money bills are referred to the Parliament for its approval.

(ii) Exclusive powers of Lok Sabha :

1. Motion of No-Confidence against the government can only be introduced and passed in the Lok Sabha.

2. Money bills can only be introduced in Lok Sabha.

3. In case of deadlock between the two Houses over non-financial ordinary bill, the Lok Sabha normally prevails as a strength which includes more than twice as many members as the Rajya Sabha.

(iii) The Speaker is the presiding officer of Lok Sabha and has following functions :

1. He regulates proceedings of the House and certifies whether a bill is a money bill or not.

2. He maintains discipline in the House and puts issues to vote and announces results.

3. He presides over the joint session of the Parliament, interprets the rules and procedure of the House. His decision in parliamentary matters is final.

4. The Speaker decides the admissibility of all questions and resolutions. He communicates the decision of the House to the concerned authorities.

5. He regulates the admission of visitors and press correspondents to the galleries of the House.

Answer 4.

(i) The President is elected indirectly by the members of Electoral College consisting of the elected members of both the Houses of Parliament and the elected members of Legislative Assembly of the states including the National Capital Territory of Delhi and union territory of Pondicherry (Official name : as Puducherry). The election of the President is held in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of single transferable vote and such election is done by secret ballot.

(ii) Discretionary powers of the President are :

1. He also appoints incumbent Prime Minister in case of sudden death, where the ruling legislative party is unable to meet immediately to elect a leader.

2. When the ruling party would lose majority support in Lok Sabha or when a vote of no-confidence may have been passed against, it requires a President to dissolve the Lok Sabha. Then it is at discretion of the President to whether dissolve the House or ask another party to prove majority on the floor of the House.

3. The President can dismiss ministers in case the Council of Ministers loses the confidence of the House but refuses to resign.

2. When the ruling party would lose majority support in Lok Sabha or when a vote of no-confidence may have been passed against, it requires a President to dissolve the Lok Sabha. Then it is at discretion of the President to whether dissolve the House or ask another party to prove majority on the floor of the House.

(iii) Four Executive Powers of the President are:

1. Being the Head of the Union administration, executive orders are issued in the name of the President.

2. The President makes appointments to run the government administration.

3. For example, appointment of the Prime Minister and Council of Ministers, appointment of Chief Justice and other judges of the Supreme Court, appointment of the Governors of the State, appointment of the Attorney General of India.

4. The administration of the union territories and the border areas is the responsibility of the President.

Answer 5.

(i) Three cases that come under the Original Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court of India are :

1. Disputes between Government of India and any state, or between two or more states.

2. The original jurisdiction also extends to cases of violation of Fundamental Rights of Individuals and the court can issue several writs for the enforcement of these rights.

3. All cases in which the interpretation of the Constitution is required, can be directly filed in the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court has a power of exclusive urisdiction in regard to questions asked on constitutional validity of Central laws.

4. Transfer of cases from Lower Courts: Under Article 139A, inserted by the 44th Amendment in 1978, the Supreme Court may transfer some cases from one court to another or to itself. It may transfer those cases which are of great importance or involving questions of law.

(ii) Power of Judicial Review:

1. The Supreme Court is an interpreter of the Constitution and its decision is final. It holds a power to review law passed by the union or state legislature.

2. The Supreme Court can strike down a law that goes against Fundamental Rights; this implicitly gives Supreme Court the power of judicial review.

3. The Supreme Court (or High Courts) can examine the constitutionality of any law. If the court arrives at the conclusion that a law is inconsistent with the provisions of the Constitution, such a law is declared as unconstitutional and inapplicable.

(iii) Supreme Court as a Court of Record:

1. A court of record is a court whose acts and proceedings are enrolled for perpetual memory and testimony. The judgements are in nature of the precedents i.e., the High Court and other courts are bound to give same decisions in similar cases.

2. Article 129 provides that the Supreme Court shall be a court of record and shall have all the powers of such a court including the power to punish for contempt of itself.

3. Article 215 contains similar provision in respect of the High Court. Both the Supreme Court as well as the High Courts are courts of record having powers to punish for contempt including the power to punish for contempt of itself.


Answer 6.

(i) Repressive Colonial Policies:
1. Lord Lytton organised a Grand Delhi Durbar in 1877 to proclaim Queen Victoria as the Empress of India. Lakhs of rupees were spent on the event but nothing was done for Indians who were in the grip of a famine.

2. The Vernacular Press Act (1878) introduced by Lord Lytton forbade vernacular papers to publish any material that might excite feelings of dissatisfaction against the British Government. This Act was not applicable to English newspapers. The editors who opposed the Act were sentenced to jail.

3. The maximum age limit for the Indian Civil Service Examination was reduced from 21 to 19 years, thus, making it difficult for the Indians to compete for it.

(ii) Role of Press in developing nationalism amongst Indians:

1. It was through the Press that the message of patriotism and modern liberal ideas of liberty, freedom, equality, home rule and independence, spread among the people.

2. The Press carried on daily criticism of the unjust policies of the British Government in India and exposed the true nature of British rule in India.

3. It made possible the exchange of views among different social groups from different parts of the country.


Early Nationalists Radicals
1. The Early Nationalists wanted to achieve self government and they strove for autonomy within the Empire and not for absolute independence. The Radicals aimed for nothing less than Swaraj as it existed in the United Kingdom.
2. They believed in constitutional methods and worked within the framework of the law. They were assertive in their approach.
3. They held good positions under the British governmentThey denounced British rule and defied it. They denounced British rule and defied it.
4. They had faith in the British sense of justice and fair play. They rejected British rule and held it responsible for the prevailing poverty of the Indian people.

Answer 7.

(i) Indian National Army was formed by Mohan Singh, an Indian officer in the British Indian army. He encouraged civilian Indians to join the anti-British organisations. Japan handed over Indian prisoners of war to Mohan Singh, who were inducted into the Indian National Army. Indian Army decided to attack British army in India on the invitation of the Indian National Congress and the people of India.

(ii) 1. Indian National Army was successful in capturing the frontiers of India. 

2. It gave tough fight to the British forces and liberated some parts of India. 

3. They raised the tricolour flag for the first time on the liberated Indian soil on March 19, 1944.

(iii) 1. Subhash Chandra Bose joined Indian National Congress and took part in the Non-Cooperation Movement along with Mahatma Gandhi. 

2. He started a party named Forward Bloc with the aim of liberating India with the support of workers and youth. 

3. Subhash Chandra Bose became the Supreme Commander of the Indian National Army. 

4. He set up the provisional government of free India in Singapore. 

5. He captured Andaman and Nicobar Islands and gave tough fight to the British forces.

Answer 8.

(i) Three cases that come under the Original Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court of India are :

(i) The above picture is of 12th March, Mahatma Gandhi began a historic march from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi and a number of people followed him. On the morning of 6th April, Gandhiji violated the Salt Law at Dandi by picking up some salt left by the sea waves.  

1. The government had the monopoly to manufacture and sell the salt. He had selected to attack the Salt Law because the salt tax affected all sections of society, especially the poor. 

2. Gandhiji’s breaking of the Salt Law marked the beginning of Civil Disobedience Movement.

(ii) Provisions of the Gandhi-Irwin Pact as a result of the Civil Disobedience Movement : Since the satyagraha could not be suppressed, the Government, through Tej Bahadur Sapru and Jayakar, started negotiations with Gandhiji in jail. This resulted in the signing of a pact by Gandhiji and Lord Irwin, the Viceroy, in March 1931. This is known as the Gandhi-Irwin Pact. The government agreed to :

1. Allow people living near seashore to manufacture salt.

2. Release all political prisoners, except those guilty of violence.

3. Permit peaceful picketing of liquor and foreign cloth shops.

4. Restore the confiscated properties of the Congressmen.

(iii) Significance of the Second Round Table Conference: It was attended by Gandhiji as a sole representative of the Congress, according to the terms of the Gandhi-Irwin Pact of 1931. The conference was soon deadlocked on the minority’s issue, with separate electorates being demanded not only by Muslims but also by the Depressed Classes, Sikhs, Indian Christians and Anglo-Indians. The question of Independence or setting up of a responsible Government receded into the background.
The British government refused to concede the immediate grant of dominion status, Gandhiji returned to India disappointed. 

Answer 9.

(i) The four factors that led to the dictatorships in Germany and Italy were:

(a) Dissatisfaction of the Peace Treaties: Italy joined the First World War on the side of the Allies. Mussolini and for that matter whole of the Italy as dissatisfied with the compensation granted to Italy after the war. Similarly, German felt discriminated by the Treaty of Versailles. A large chunk of it occupied and own territories were taken away and shared by other European powers. Military sanctions were imposed. Adolf Hitler blamed the democratic government for this. 

(b) Economic Factors: Economic conditions in Italy after the war was very bad, war debts and budget deficit caused lots of difficulty. The salaried employees, the farmers and the industrial workers felt the pinch post-war inflation. Additionally, heavy war penalties were imposed on Germany which made economic recovery impossible and resulted in high rate inflation and unemployment. Nazi ranks swelled by unemployed youth. 

(c) Inefficient and Corrupt Democratic Government: The post-war democratic Governments were weak. They could not respond properly to the needs and aspirations of the people. Short- lived coalition governments in Italy were unable to tackle the problem faced by the people in their day to day life. Similar was the political scenario in Germany where Weimar Republic failed miserably to tackle economic downfall and ensuing riots.

(ii) Rise of Hitler and Nazism in Germany: According to David Thomas, rise of Adolf Hitler and Nazi party in Germany was one of the major causes of the Second World War. Hitler was very ambitious. He glorified the use of force, brutality, war and violent nationalism. He ridiculed socialism, democracy and internationalism. The worst was that Hitler had set out the policy of militarisation of Germany. Hitler denounced the Treaty of Versailles and took Germany out of the League of Nations.

Rise of Fascism and Mussolini in Italy: The period (1919—1939) also saw the rise of Fascism under Benito Mussolini in Italy. Fascism did not like democracy, socialism and international peace. They openly advocated war, colonialism and imperialism. Mussolini said ‘nations which do not expand cannot exist for long’. He prepared for war. The Fascist Government gave training to the youths and infused new spirit in them. Mussolini’s policy of aggression gave severe blow to the League of Nations and made war inevitable.

(iii) The immediate cause was refusal of Hitler’s demand for annexation of the port of Danzig to Germany. While this was used as an excuse by Hitler to attack Poland. It was nearly a small initial step to avenge the defeat and unjust treaties which were imposed on Germany in the aftermath of the world war I. It was a prelude to the large territorial ambitions nurtured by Hitler, this was soon to unfold before the entire world. The main reasons, why Germany invaded Poland are listed as follows:

1. To negate any military alliance between Poland and other European nations against Germany.

2. To gain a foothold in the territory surrounding Russia.

3. To make known to the world his aversion to the Treaty of Versailles.

4. Hitler despised Chamberlain’s guarantee to support Poland in case of an attack by Germany. He attacked Poland to teach Chamberlain a lesson.

5. Hitler entered into a pact with Stalin which included a secret clause to divide Poland between them. It was disagreement also which worked as a shield and prompted him to attack Poland.

Answer 10.

(i) Factors responsible for the formation of United Nations Organisation:

1. International peace: This is one of the most important purposes of establishing UNO. It should take effective measures for the removal of threats of the peace.

2. Friendly relations: Its second most important purpose is to develop friendly relations among nations, based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of people.

3. International cooperation: Its third most important purpose is to promote international cooperation in solving international problems on economic, social, cultural or humanitarian charter.

4. Social equality: To promote international cooperation, respect for human rights and fundamental freedom for all without distinction as to race, sex, language or religion.

(ii) The main principles of UNO are :

1. To respect the sovereign equality of all its members.

2. All members should fulfill, in good faith, the obligations assumed by them.

3. They would refrain from the threat or use of force against any state.

4. They should give United Nations every assistance in any action it takes.

(iii) The United Nations Organisation undertook the three dimensional task of peace-keeping, peacemaking and peace-building in a world which had just been a victim of a devastating world war. Thus, the primary function of the UNO is to maintain international peace and security. This includes collective effective measures for prevention and removal of threats to peace, and suppression of acts of aggression or other breaches of peace. To bring about through peaceful means, adhering to principles of justice and international law adjustment and settlement of international disputes. Thus, the cause of action for UNO arises when there is threat to peace, or actual aggression causing breach of peace. The means for settling disputes are recommended to be peaceful but where suppression of aggression is required the Security Council is authorised to use military operations. For instance in Korea, Palestine, Congo and in the Gulf War the UN military forces played a decisive role.

ICSE 61 Sample Question Papers

All Subjects Combined for Class 10 Exam 2023

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