Biology

ISC Class 12 Biology Syllabus 2022-23

CISCE has released the Latest Updated Syllabus of the New Academic Session 2022-23, for class 12.

Class 12th Syllabus has been revised and changed many times during the Covid situation but finally it released. It’s very important for both Teachers and Students to understand the changes and strictly follow the topics covered in each subject under each stream for Class 12th.

We have also updated Oswal Gurukul Books as per the Latest Paper Pattern prescribed by CISCE Board for each Subject Curriculum.

Students can directly access the ISC Biology Syllabus for Class 10 of the academic year 2022- 23 by clicking on the link below.

PDF download links to the latest reduced Class 12 Biology Syllabus for 2022-23 academic session

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ISC Biology Class 12 Reduced Syllabus 2022-23

S.no Unit Topic Sub-Topic Marks
1 Reproduction (i) Sexual reproduction in flowering plants Pre-fertilisation structures and events. 70
Development of male and female gametophytes; outbreeding devices; pollen-pistil interaction; double fertilization; post fertilization events - development of endosperm and embryo, development of seed and formation of fruit; special modes - apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony. Structure of microsporangium, T.S. of anther microsporogenesis, structure and development of pollen grain, viability of pollen grain, economic importance of pollen grain. Pistil – structure of megasporangium (L.S. of anatropous ovule), megasporogenesis, structure and development of female gametophyte.
Pollen-pistil interaction in terms of incompatibility/compatibility, events leading to fertilisation, definition of triple fusion and double fertilization, changes in the ovary and ovule for seed and fruit formation. Significance of double fertilization. Apomixis, polyembryony, parthenocarpy to be explained briefly.
Post-fertilisation events - embryo formation (dicot); types of endosperm (cellular, nuclear and helobial); definition of perisperm.
"(ii) Human Reproduction
Male and female reproductive systems; microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; gametogenesis - spermatogenesis and oogenesis; menstrual cycle; fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; pregnancy and placenta formation (elementary idea); parturition (elementary idea); lactation (elementary idea)." Organs of male and female reproductive system and their functions; internal structure of testis and ovary to be taught with the help of diagrams; gametogenesis- spermatogenesis (including spermiogenesis and spermiation) oogenesis; hormonal control of gametogenesis, structure of sperm and mature ovum, menstrual cycle - different phases and hormone action, differences between oestrous and menstrual cycle, menarche and menopause, physico-chemical events during fertilisation, implantation, embryonic development up to blastocyst formation, important features of human embryonic development (formation of heart, limbs, digits, appearance of hair on head, eyelashes, separation of eye lids, external genital organs and first movement of foetus with reference to time period) placenta and its functions. Parturition; lactation – hormonal control and importance.
(iii) Reproductive Health
Need for reproductive health and prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs); birth control - need and methods, contraception and medical termination of pregnancy (MTP); amniocentesis; infertility and assisted reproductive technologies - IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (elementary idea for general awareness). Definition of reproductive health, programs of reproductive health (family planning, RCH), population explosion - role of government in controlling the population, contraceptives methods and their methods of action (natural-periodic abstinence, withdrawal or coitus interruptus, lactational amenorrhea; artificial – barriers, IUDs, oral pills, implants and surgical methods, definition of medical termination of pregnancy (MTP) and reasons for it; causes of infertility. Amniocentesis and its role in detecting genetic defects. Assisted reproductive technologies: IVF, IUT, ZIFT, ICSI, GIFT, AI, IUI. - definition and application only. Causes, symptoms and methods of prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (gonorrhoea, syphilis, genital herpes, chlamydiasis, genital warts, trichomoniasis, hepatitis- B, AIDS).
2 Genetics and Evolution (i) Principles of inheritance and variation Explanation of the terms heredity and variation; Mendel's Principles of inheritance; reasons for Mendel's success; definition of homologous chromosomes, autosomes and sex chromosomes; alleles – dominant and recessive; phenotype; genotype; homozygous; heterozygous, monohybrid and dihybrid crosses; back cross and test cross, definitions to be taught with simple examples using Punnett square. Incomplete dominance with examples from plants (snapdragon - Antirrhinum) and co-dominance in human blood group, multiple alleles – e.g. blood groups, polygenic inheritance with one example of inheritance of skin colour in humans (students should be taught examples from human genetics through pedigree charts. They should be able to interpret the patterns of inheritance by analysis of pedigree chart). Biological importance of Mendelism. Pleiotropy with reference to the example of starch synthesis in pea seeds. Chromosomal theory of inheritance; autosomes and sex chromosomes (sex determination in humans, fruit fly, birds, honey bees and grasshopper), sex-linked inheritance - with reference to Drosophila (colour of body-yellow and brown; and colour of eyes-red and white), definition and significance of linkage and crossing over. Mutation: spontaneous, induced, gene (point – transition, transversion and frame-shift); chromosomal aberration: euploidy and aneuploidy; human genetic disorders: phenylketonuria, thalassaemia, colour blindness, sickle cell anaemia; chromosomal disorders: Down’s syndrome, Klinefelter’s syndrome, Turner’s syndrome.
Heredity and variation: Mendelian inheritance; deviations from Mendelism - incomplete dominance, co-dominance, multiple alleles and inheritance of blood groups, pleiotropy; elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; chromosomal theory of inheritance; chromosomes and genes; sex determination - in humans, fruit fly, birds, honey bee and grasshopper; linkage and crossing over; mutation; sex linked inheritance: Mendelian disorders in humans; chromosomal disorders in humans.
(ii) Molecular basis of Inheritance Structure of eukaryotic chromosomes with reference to nucleosome; properties of genes such as ability to replicate, chemical stability, mutability and inheritability. Search for DNA as genetic material - Griffith’s experiment, Hershey and Chase’s experiment, Avery, McLeod and McCarty’s experiment; double helical model of DNA (contributions of Meischer, Watson and Crick, Wilkins, Franklin and Chargaff); Differences between DNA and RNA; types of RNA (tRNA, mRNA and rRNA, snRNA, hnRNA); central dogma – concept only; reverse transcription (basic idea only), Meselson and Stahl’s experiment, replication of DNA (role of enzymes, namely DNA. Discovery and essential features of genetic code. Definition of codon. Protein synthesis - translation in prokaryotes. Gene expression in prokaryotes; lac operon in E. coli.
Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; central dogma; transcription, genetic code, translation; gene expression and regulation - lac operon; human genome project; DNA fingerprinting. Human Genome Project: goal; methodologies [Expressed Sequence Tags (EST), Sequence Annotation], salient features and applications. DNA finger printing – technique, application and ethical issues to be discussed briefly.
"(iii) Evolution
Origin of life; biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution (palaeontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidences); Darwin's contribution, modern synthetic theory of evolution; mechanism of evolution - variation (mutation and recombination) and natural selection with examples, types of natural selection; gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy - Weinberg's principle; adaptive radiation; human evolution." Origin of life - abiogenesis and biogenesis, effect of oxygen on evolution to show that reducing atmosphere is essential for abiotic synthesis. Important views on the origin of life, modern concept of origin of life, Oparin Haldane theory, definition of protobionts, coacervates), vestigial organs; Miller and Urey experiment. Evidences of evolution: morphological evidences, definition and differences between homologous and analogous organs (two examples each from plants and animals). Embryological evidences – theory of recapitulation, definition and differences between ontogeny and phylogeny. Palaeontological evidence – definition of fossils. Geological time scale (with reference to dominant flora and fauna) Biogeographical evidence – definition of biogeography, molecular (genetic) evidences -for example genome similarity, universal genetic code; Darwin's finches (adaptive radiation).
Darwinism: salient features of Darwinism, contribution of Malthus, criticism of Darwinism. Examples of natural selection – Long neck of giraffe, industrial melanism, resistance of mosquitoes to DDT and resistance of bacteria to antibiotics, Lederberg’s replica plating experiment, Neo-Darwinism (Modern Synthetic Theory); Variation - causes of variation, Hugo de Vries theory of mutation - role of mutation in evolution; Hardy Weinberg’s principle, factors affecting Hardy Weinberg equilibrium: gene migration or gene flow, genetic drift (Founder’s effect, bottle-neck effect), mutation, genetic recombination and natural selection, types of natural selection (directional, disruptive and stabilizing). Evolution of man - three features of each of the ancestors Dryopithecus, Ramapithecus, Australopithecus, Homo habilis, Homo erectus, Homo neanderthalensis, Cro-magnon man and Homo sapiens leading to man of today.
3 Biology and Human Welfare (i) Human Health and Diseases Communicable and non-communicable diseases; modes of transmission, causative agents, symptoms and prevention; viral diseases (common cold, chikungunya and dengue), bacterial diseases (typhoid, pneumonia, diphtheria and plague), protozoal diseases (amoebiasis, and malaria, graphic outline of life cycle of Plasmodium), helmintic diseases (ascariasis, and filariasis); fungal (ringworm); cancer - types of tumour (benign, malignant), causes, diagnosis and treatment, characteristics of cancer cells (loss of contact inhibition and metastasis).
Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (common cold, dengue, chikungunya, typhoid, pneumonia, amoebiasis, malaria, filariasis, ascariasis, ring worm) and their control; Basic concepts of immunology - vaccines; cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence - drug and alcohol abuse. Immunity (definition and types – innate and acquired, active and passive, humoral and cell-mediated), Interferons – definition, source and function; structure of a typical antibody molecule, types of antibodies - IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD and IgE (function and occurrence, e,g. in serum, saliva, colostrum); vaccination and immunisation, allergies and allergens – definition and general symptoms of allergies; autoimmunity, primary and secondary lymphoid organs and tissues, brief idea of AIDS – causative agent (HIV), modes of transmission, diagnosis (ELISA), symptoms, replication of retrovirus in the infected human cell (including diagram) and prevention.
Alcoholism and smoking - effects on health.
Drugs: effects and sources of opioids, cannabinoids, cocaine and barbiturates.
Reasons for addiction; prevention and control of alcohol and drug abuse.
(ii) Microbes in Human Welfare Use of microbes in: (i) Household products: Lactobacillus (curd), Saccharomyces (bread), Propionibacterium (Swiss cheese); (ii) Industrial products: beverages (with and without distillation), antibiotics (Penicillin – discovery and use); sources (microbes) and uses of organic acids, alcohols and enzymes (lipase, pectinase, protease, streptokinase) in industry, source (microbes) and applications of Cyclosporin-A, Statins. (iii) Sewage treatment – primary and secondary treatment; (iv) Production of biogas (methanogens, biogas plant, composition of biogas and process of production); (v) Microbes as biocontrol agents (ladybird, dragonfly, Bacillus thuringiensis Trichoderma, Nucleopolyhedrovirus (Baculovirus), and (vi) Microbes as biofertilisers (Rhizobium, Azospirillum, Azotobacter, Mycorrhiza, Cyanobacteria), IPM, harmful effects of chemical pesticides.
In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and microbes as biocontrol agents and biofertilisers. Antibiotics.
4 Biotechnology and its Applications (i) Biotechnology - Principles and processes Genetic Engineering (recombinant DNA technology). Definition and principles of biotechnology; isolation of genomic (chromosomal) DNA (from bacteria/plant cell/animal cell, by cell lysis), isolation of gene of interest (by electrophoresis), steps of formation of recombinant DNA, discovery, nomenclature, features and role of restriction enzymes (EcoRI, HindII) and role of ligase; cloning vectors (features of a good cloning vector, examples of cloning vectors like pBR322, Agrobacterium, retroviruses, bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC), yeast artificial chromosome (YAC)), methods of transfer of rDNA into a competent host, e.g. by direct-method (temperature shock), microinjection, gene gun, methods of selection of recombinants (antibiotic resistance, insertional inactivation/blue-white selection), cloning of recombinants, i.e., gene amplification (by in vivo or in vitro method - using PCR technique), bioreactor (basic features and uses of stirred tank and sparged tank bioreactors), downstream processing.
(ii) Biotechnology and its applications Applications of biotechnology in health and agriculture: human insulin and vaccine production, stem cell technology, gene therapy; genetically modified organisms - Bt crops; transgenic animals; biosafety issues, biopiracy and biopatents. In agriculture: for production of crops tolerant to abiotic stresses (cold, drought, salt, heat); pest-resistant crops (Bt-crops, RNAi with reference to Meloidogyne incognita); crops with enhanced nutritional value (golden rice).
In medicine: insulin, gene therapy - with reference to treatment of SCID, molecular diagnosis by PCR, ELISA and use of DNA/RNA probe.
Transgenic animals for bioactive products like alpha-1-antitrypsin for emphysema, alpha-lactalbumin; vaccine safety testing, chemical safety testing; study of diseases.
Role of GEAC, definition and two examples of biopiracy, biopatent; ethical issues.
5 Ecology and Environment (i) Organisms and Populations
Population interactions - mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; population attributes - birth rate and death rate, age distribution. Definition of population; population attributes: sex ratio, types of age distribution pyramids for human population; definition of population density, natality, mortality, emigration, immigration, carrying capacity. Ways to measure population density. Calculation of natality and mortality.
Population interactions – definition of mutualism, competition (interspecific, interference, competitive release and Gause’s Principle of Competitive Exclusion), predation (adaptations in organisms to avoid predation), parasitism (ecto-, endo-, and brood parasites), commensalism, amensalism.
(ii) Ecosystem Definition and types of ecosystems; structure of ecosystem (brief idea about biotic and abiotic components).
Ecosystems: patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; energy flow; pyramids of number, biomass, energy. Ecosystem functions: (i) Productivity – gross primary productivity (GPP), net primary productivity (NPP) and secondary productivity (ii) Decomposition (fragmentation, leaching, catabolism, humification and mineralization), factors affecting rate of decomposition (iii) Energy flow. Various types of food chains – grazing and detritus, food webs, trophic levels, ecological pyramids – energy, number and biomass.
Definition of PAR, 10% Law, standing crop and standing state.
(iii) Biodiversity and its Conservation Definition of biodiversity, few examples of each type of biodiversity - species, ecosystem and genetic. Global biodiversity and proportionate number of species of major taxa of plants, invertebrates and vertebrates; patterns of biodiversity (latitudinal gradients, species-area relationship – graph and equation), “rivet popper hypothesis”, importance of species diversity to the ecosystem (narrowly utilitarian, broadly utilitarian, ethical terms).
Concept of biodiversity; patterns of biodiversity; importance of biodiversity; loss of biodiversity; biodiversity conservation; hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, national parks, sanctuaries and Ramsar sites Examples of some recently extinct organisms, causes of loss of biodiversity (habitat loss and fragmentation, over-exploitation, alien species invasion, co-extinction).
Biodiversity conservation: In-situ methods - protected areas: biosphere reserves, national parks, wildlife sanctuaries, sacred groves; ex-situ methods - captive breeding, zoo, botanical gardens, cryopreservation, wild life safari, seed banks, tissue culture. Definitions and examples of each of the above. Hotspots, Ramsar sites and Red Data Book.
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