ISC Class 12 Mathematics Syllabus 202324
CISCE has released the Latest Updated Syllabus of the New Academic Session 202324, for class 12.
Class 12th Syllabus has been released by CISCE. It’s very important for both Teachers and Students to understand the changes and strictly follow the topics covered in each subject under each stream for Class 12th.
We have also updated Oswal Gurukul Books as per the Latest Paper Pattern prescribed by Board for each Subject Curriculum.
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ISC Mathematics Class 12 Latest Syllabus 202324
 To enable candidates to acquire knowledge and to develop an understanding of the terms, concepts, symbols, definitions, principles, processes and formulae of Mathematics at the Senior Secondary stage.
 To develop the ability to apply the knowledge and understanding of Mathematics to unfamiliar situations or to new problems.
 To develop an interest in Mathematics.
 To enhance ability of analytical and rational thinking in young minds.
 To develop skills of 
(a) Computation.
(b) Logical thinking.
(c) Handling abstractions.
(d) Generalizing patterns.
(e) Solving problems using multiple methods.
(f) Reading tables, charts, graphs, etc.
 To develop an appreciation of the role of Mathematics in daytoday life.
 To develop a scientific attitude through the study of Mathematics.
A knowledge of Arithmetic, Basic Algebra (Formulae, Factorization etc.), Basic Trigonometry and Pure Geometry is assumed.
As regards to the standard of algebraic manipulation, students should be taught:
(i) To check every step before proceeding to the next particularly where minus signs are involved.
(ii) To attack simplification piecemeal rather than en block.
(iii) To observe and act on any special features of algebraic form that may be obviously present.
There will be two papers in the subject:
Paper I : Theory (3 hours) ……80 marks
Paper II: Project Work ……20 marks
S.No  Unit  Topic  SubTopic  Marks 
1  Relations and Functions  (i) Types of relations: reflexive, symmetric, transitive and equivalence relations. One to one and onto functions, composite functions, inverse of a function. Binaryoperations. 
 Identity relation, empty relation, universal relation.  Types of Relations: reflexive, symmetric, transitive and equivalence relation. 
80 Marks 


 As special relations, concept of writing “y is a function of x” as y = f(x).  Types: one to one, many to one, into,onto.  Real Valued function.  Domain and range of a function.  Conditions of invertibility.  Composite functions and invertible functions (algebraic functions only). 

(ii) Inverse Trigonometric Functions  Definition, domain, range, principal value branch. Graphs of inverse trigonometric functions. Elementary properties of inverse trigonometricfunctions.  
 Principal values.  sin^{1}x, cos^{1}x, tan^{1}x etc. and their graphs. $$\text{\textendash}\qquad\text{sin}^{\normalsize1}x=\text{cos}^{\normalsize1}x\sqrt{1x^{2}}=\text{tan}^{\normalsize1}\frac{x}{\sqrt{1x^{2}}}.\\\text{\textendash}\qquad \text{sin}^{1}x=\text{cosec}^{1}\frac{1}{x};\text{sin}^{1}x+\text{cos}^{1}x=\frac{\pi}{2}\\\text{and similar relations for cot}^{\normalsize1} x, \text{tan}^{\normalsize1} \text{x, etc.}\\\text{sin}^{\normalsize1}x\pm\text{sin}^{\normalsize1}y=\text{sin}^{\normalsize1}(x\sqrt{1y^{2}}\pm y\sqrt{1x^{2}})\\\text{cos}^{\normalsize1}\pm\text{cos}^{\normalsize1}y=\text{cos}^{\normalsize1}(xy\mp\sqrt{1y^{2}}\sqrt{1x^{2}})\\\text{similarly}\space\text{tan}^{\normalsize1}x+\text{tan}^{\normalsize1}y=\text{tan}^{\normalsize1}\frac{x+y}{1xy},xy\text{\textless}1\\\text{tan}^{\normalsize1}x\text{tan}^{\normalsize1}y=\text{tan}^{\normalsize1}\frac{xy}{1+xy},xy\text{\textgreater}1$$  Formulae for 2sin^{1}x, 2cos^{1}x, 2tan^{1}x, 3tan^{1}x etc. and application of these formulae. 

2  Algebra  Matrices and Determinants  
(i) Matrices  Concept, notation, order, equality, types of matrices, zero and identity matrix, transpose of a matrix, symmetric and skew symmetric matrices. Operation on matrices: Addition and multiplication and multiplication with a scalar. Simple properties of addition, multiplication and scalar multiplication. Noncommutativity of multiplication of matrices and existence of nonzero matrices whose product is the zero matrix (restrict to square matrices of order upto 3). Concept of elementary row and column operations. Invertible matrices and proof of the uniqueness of inverse, if it exists (here all matrices will have real entries).  
(ii) Determinants  Determinant of a square matrix (up to 3 x 3matrices), properties of determinants, minors, cofactors and applications of determinants in finding the area of a triangle. Adjoint and inverse of a square matrix. Consistency, inconsistency and number of solutions of system of linear equations by examples, solving system of linear equations in two or three variables (having unique solution) using inverse of a matrix.  
Types of matrices (m × n; m, n ≤ 3), order; Identity matrix, Diagonal matrix.  
Symmetric, Skew symmetric.  
Operation – addition, subtraction,
multiplication of a matrix with scalar,
multiplication of two matrices
(the compatibility). $$\text{E.g.}\space\begin{bmatrix} 1 & 1 \\0 & 2 \\1 & 1\end{bmatrix}\begin{bmatrix} 1 & 2 \\2 & 2\end{bmatrix}=\text{AB}(say)\text{but BA is not possible.}$$  Singular and nonsingular matrices.  Existence of two nonzero matrices whose product is a zero matrix. $$\text{\textendash}\qquad \text{Inverse} (2×2, 3×3)\text{A}^{\normalsize1}=\frac{\text{Adj A}}{A}$$
a_{1}x + b_{1}y + c_{1}z = d_{1} a_{2}x + b_{2}y + c_{2}z = d_{2} a_{3}x + b_{3}y + c_{3}z = d_{3} $$\text{A}=\begin{bmatrix} a_1 & b_1 & c_1 \\a_2 &b_2 & c_2 \\a_3 & b_3 & c_3 \end{bmatrix}\space\text{B}=\begin{bmatrix} d_1 \\d_2 \\d_3\end{bmatrix}\space\text{X}=\begin{bmatrix} x \\y \\z\end{bmatrix}\\ \text{AX = B}\Rarr\text{X= A}^{\normalsize1}B$$ 

Problems based on above  
NOTE 1: The conditions for consistency of equations in two and three variables, using matrices, are to be covered.  
NOTE 2: Inverse of a matrix by elementary operations to be covered.  


Order  
Minors  
Cofactors  
Expansion  
Applications of determinants in finding the area of triangle and collinearity.  
Properties of determinants. Problems based on properties of determinants.  
3  Calculus  (i) Continuity, Differentiability and Differentiation. Continuity and differentiability, derivative of composite functions, chain rule, derivatives of inverse trigonometric functions, derivative of implicit functions. Concept of exponential and logarithmic functions. Derivatives of logarithmic and exponential functions. Logarithmic differentiation, derivative of functions expressed in parametric forms. Second order derivatives. Rolle's and Lagrange's Mean Value Theorems (without proof) and their geometric interpretation. 
 Continuity of a function at a point x = a.  Continuity of a function in an interval.  Algebra of continues function.  Removable discontinuity 

Differentiation  Concept of continuity and differentiability of x , [x], etc.  Derivatives of trigonometric functions.  Derivatives of exponential functions.  Derivatives of logarithmic functions.  Derivatives of inverse trigonometric functions  differentiation by means of substitution.  Derivatives of implicit functions and chain rule.  e for composite functions.  Derivatives of Parametric functions.  Differentiation of a function with respect to another function e.g. differentiation of sinx3 with respect to x^{3}.  Logarithmic Differentiation  Finding dy/dx when $$y= x^{x^{x^{.^{.}}}}$$  Successive differentiation up to 2^{nd} order. 

NOTE 1: Derivatives of composite functions using chain rule  
NOTE 2: Derivatives of determinants to be covered  
$$\text{\textendash}\space\frac{0}{0}\space\text{form},\frac{\infty}{\infty}\text{form},\space0\degree\text{form},\infty^{\infty}\text{form etc.}$$


(ii) Applications of Derivatives Applications of derivatives: rate of change of bodies, increasing/ decreasing functions, tangents and normals, use of derivatives in approximation, maxima and minima (first derivative test motivated geometrically and second derivative test given as a provable tool). Simple problems (that illustrate basic principles and understanding of the subject as well as reallifesituations).  Equation of Tangent and Normal


Stationary/turning points.  Absolute maxima/minima  local maxima/minima  First derivatives test and second derivatives test  Point of inflexion.  Application problems based on maxima and minima. 

(iii) Integrals Integration as inverse process of differentiation. Integration of a variety of functions by substitution, by partial fractions and by parts, Evaluation of simple integrals of the following types and problems based on them. 
 Antiderivatives of polynomials and functions (ax +b)^{n} , sinx, cosx, sec^{2}x, cosec^{2}x etc .  Integrals of the type sin^{2}x, sin^{3}x, sin^{4}x, cos^{2}x, cos^{3}x, cos^{4}x.  Integration of 1/x, e^{x}.  Integration by substitution. $$\text{ Integrals of the type f ' (x)[f (x)]}^n , \frac{f'(x)}{f(x)}.$$  Integration of tanx, cotx, secx,cosecx.  Integration by parts.  Integration using partial fractions. $$\text{Expressions of the form}\space\frac{f(x)}{g(x)}\space\text{when degree of f(x) \text{\textless} degree of g(x)}\\\text{E.g}\space\frac{x+2}{(x3)(x+1)}=\frac{A}{x3}+\frac{B}{x+1}\\\frac{x+2}{(x2)(x1)^{2}}=\frac{A}{x1}+\frac{B}{(x1)^{2}}+\frac{C}{(x2)}\\\frac{x+1}{(x^{2}+3)(x1)}=\frac{Ax+B}{x^{2}+3}+\frac{C}{x1}\\\text{When degree of f (x)} \ge \text{degree of g(x),}\\\text{e.g.}\space\frac{x^{2}+1}{x^{2}+3x+2}=1\bigg(\frac{3x1}{x^{2}+3x+2}\bigg)$$


 Definite integral as a limit of the sum.  Fundamental theorem of calculus (without proof)  Properties of definite integrals. Problems based on the following properties of definite integrals are to be covered. $$\int^{b}_{a}\text{f(x)dx}=\int^{b}_{a}\text{f(t)dt}\\\int^{b}_{a}\text{f(x)dx}=\int^{a}_{b}\text{f(x)dx}\\\int^{b}_{a}\text{f(x)dx}=\int^{c}_{a}\text{f(x)dx+}\int^{b}_{c}\text{f(x)dx}\\\text{where a} \text{\textless}c\text{\textless}b\\\int^{b}_{a}\text{f (x)dx}=\int^{b}_{a}\text{f(a+bx)dx}\\\int^{a}_{0}\text{f(x)dx}=\int^{a}_{0}f(ax)dx\\\int^{2a}_{0}\text{f(x)dx}= \begin{cases} 2\int^{a}_{0}\text{f(x)dx}, \text{if } f(2ax)=f(x) \\ 0, f(2ax)=f(x) \end{cases}$$ $$\int^{a}_{a}\text{f(x)dx}= \begin{cases} 2\int^{a}_{0}\text{f(x)\space dx}\space\text{if f is an even function} \\ 0,\text{if is an odd function} \end{cases}$$ 

(iv) Differential Equations Definition, order and degree, general and particular solutions of a differential equation. Formation of differential equation whose general solution is given. Solution of differential equations by method of separation of variables solutions of homogeneous differential equations of first order and first degree. Solutions of linear differential equation of the type: $$\frac{dy}{dx}+py=q,\text{where p and q are functions of x or constants}\\\frac{dx}{dy}+px=q,\text{where p and q are functions of y or constants.}$$   Differential equations, order and degree.  Formation of differential equation by eliminating arbitrary constant(s).  Solution of differential equations.  Variable separable.  Homogeneous equations. $$\text{\textendash}\qquad\text{Linear form}\space\frac{dy}{dx}+Py=Q\text{where P and Q are functions of x only.}\\\text{ Similarly, for\space dx/dy.}$$  Solve problems on velocity, acceleration, distance and time.  Solve populationbased problems on application of differential equations.  Solve problems of application on coordinate geometry. 

NOTE 1: Equations reducible to variable separable type are included.  
NOTE 2: The second order differential equations are excluded.  
4  Probability  Conditional probability, multiplication theorem on probability, independent events, total probability, Bayes’ theorem, Random variable and its probability distribution, mean and variance of random variable. Repeated independent (Bernoulli) trials and Binomial distribution.  Independent and dependent events conditional events.  Laws of Probability, addition theorem, multiplication theorem, conditional probability.  Theorem of Total Probability.  Baye’s theorem.  Theoretical probability distribution, probability distribution function; mean and variance of random variable, Repeated independent (Bernoulli trials), binomial distribution – its mean and variance. 

5  Vectors  Vectors and scalars, magnitude and direction of a vector. Direction cosines and direction ratios of a vector. Types of vectors (equal, unit, zero, parallel and collinear vectors), position vector of a point, negative of a vector, components of a vector, addition of vectors, multiplication of a vector by a scalar, position vector of a point dividing a line segment in a given ratio. Definition, Geometrical Interpretation, properties and application of scalar (dot) product of vectors, vector (cross) product of vectors, scalar triple product of vectors.   As directed line segments.  Magnitude and direction of a vector.  Types: equal vectors, unit vectors, zero vector.  Position vector.  Components of a vector.  Vectors in two and three dimensions. $$\text{\textendash}\qquad\hat{i},\hat{j},\hat{k}$$ as unit vectors along the x, y and the z axes; expressing a vector in terms of the unit vectors.  Operations: Sum and Difference of vectors; scalar multiplication of a vector.  Section formula.  Triangle inequalities  Scalar (dot) product of vectors and its geometrical significance  Cross product  its properties  area of a triangle, area of parallelogram, collinear vectors.  Scalar triple product  volume of a parallelepiped, coplanarity. 

NOTE: Proofs of geometrical theorems by using Vector algebra are excluded  
6  Three  dimensional Geometry  Direction cosines and direction ratios of a line joining two points. Cartesian equation and vector equation of a line, coplanar and skew lines, shortest distance between two lines. Cartesian and vector equation of a plane. Angle between (i) two lines, (ii) two planes, (iii) a line and a plane. Distance of a point from a plane.   Equation of xaxis, yaxis, z axis and lines parallel to them.  Equation of xy  plane, yz – plane, zx – plane.  Direction cosines, direction ratios.  Angle between two lines in terms of direction cosines /direction ratios.  Condition for lines to be perpendicular/ parallel. 

 Coplanar and skew lines.  Conditions for intersection of two lines.  Distance of a point from a line.  Shortest distance between two lines 

NOTE: Symmetric and nonsymmetric forms of lines are required to be covered.  
 Direction ratios of the normal to the plane.  One point form.  Normal form.  Intercept form.  Distance of a point from a plane.  Intersection of the line and plane.  Angle between two planes, a line and a plane.  Equation of a plane through the intersection of two planes i.e. P_{1} + kP_{2} = 0. 

7  Application of Integrals  Application in finding the area bounded by simple curves and coordinate axes. Area enclosed between two curves.   Application of definite integrals  area bounded by curves, lines and coordinate axes is required to be covered.  
 Simple curves: lines, circles/ parabolas/ ellipses, polynomial functions, modulus function, trigonometric function, exponential functions, logarithmic functions  
8  Application of Calculus  Application of Calculus in Commerce and Economics in the following:   Cost function,  average cost,  marginal cost and its interpretation  demand function,  revenue function,  marginal revenue function and its interpretation,  Profit function and breakeven point.  Rough sketching of the following curves: AR, MR, R, C, AC, MC and their mathematical interpretation using the concept of maxima & minima and increasing decreasing functions. Selfexplanatory 

NOTE: Application involving differentiation, integration, increasing and decreasing function and maxima and minima to be covered.  
9  Linear Regression   Lines of regression of x on y and y on x  Scatter diagrams  The method of least squares.  Lines of best fit.  Regression coefficient of x on y and y on x.  b_{xy}× b_{yx} = r^{2} ,0 ≤ b_{xy}×b_{yx} ≤ 1  Identification of regression equations  Angle between regression line and properties of regression lines.  Estimation of the value of one variable using the value of other variable from appropriate line of regression. Selfexplanatory 

10  Linear Programming  Introduction, related terminology such as constraints, objective function, optimization, different types of linear programming (L.P.) problems, mathematical formulation of L.P. problems, graphical method of solution for problems in two variables, feasible and infeasible regions (bounded and unbounded), feasible and infeasible solutions, optimal feasible solutions (up to three nontrivialconstraints).  Introduction, definition of related terminology such as constraints, objective function, optimization, advantages of linear programming; limitations of linear programming; application areas of linear programming; different types of linear programming (L.P.) problems, mathematical formulation of L.P problems, graphical method of solution for problems in two variables, feasible and infeasible regions, feasible and infeasible solutions, optimum feasible solution. 
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