ISC Class 12 Physics Syllabus 202324
CISCE has released the Latest Updated Syllabus of the New Academic Session 202324, for class 12.
Class 12th Syllabus has been released by CISCE. It’s very important for both Teachers and Students to understand the changes and strictly follow the topics covered in each subject under each stream for Class 12th.
We have also updated Oswal Gurukul Books as per the Latest Paper Pattern prescribed by Board for each Subject Curriculum.
Students can directly access the ISC Physics Syllabus for Class 12 of the academic year 202324 by clicking on the link below.
PDF download links to the latest Class 12 Physics Syllabus for 202324 academic session
ISC Physics Class 12 Latest Syllabus 202324
 To enable candidates to acquire knowledge and to develop an understanding of the terms, facts, concepts, definitions, and fundamental laws, principles and processes in the field of physics.
 To develop the ability to apply the knowledge and understanding of physics to unfamiliar situations.
 To develop a scientific attitude through the study of physical sciences.
 To develop skills in 
(a) the practical aspects of handling apparatus, recording observations and
(b) Drawing diagrams, graphs, etc.
 To develop an appreciation of the contribution of physics towards scientific and technological developments and towards human happiness.
 To develop an interest in the world of physical sciences.
There will be two papers in the subject:
Paper I: Theory  3 hours ... 70 marks
Paper II: Practical  3 hours ... 15 marks
Project Work ... 10 marks
Practical File ... 5 marks
S.No  Unit  Topic  SubTopic  Marks 
1  Electrostatics  (i) Electric Charges and Fields Electric charges; conservation and quantisation of charge, Coulomb's law; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution. Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines, electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole, torque on a dipole in uniform electric field. 
(a) Coulomb's law, S.I. unit of charge; permittivity of free space and of deielectric medium. Frictional electricity, electric charges (two types); repulsion and attraction; simple atomic structure electrons and ions; conductors and insulators; quantization and conservation of electric charge; Coulomb's law in vector from; (position coordinates r1, r2 not necessary). Comparison with Newton's law of gravitation; Superposition principle $$(\vec{F}_1=\vec{F}_{12}+\vec{F}_{13}+\vec{F}_{14}+...).$$ (b) Concept of electric field and its intensity; examples of different fields; gravitstional, electric and magnetic; Electric field due to a point charge $$\vec{E}=\vec{F}/q_0 $$ (q0 is a test charge); $$\vec{E}$$ for a group of charges (superposition principle); a point charge q in an electric field $$\vec{E}$$ experiences an electric force $$\vec{F}_E=q\vec{E}$$. Intensity due to a continuous distribution of charge i.e. linear, surface and volume. (c) Electric lines of force; A conventent way to visualize the electric field; properties of lines of force; examples of the lines of force due to (i) an isolated point charge (+ve and ve); (ii) dipole, (ii) two similar charges of a small distance;(iv) uniform field between two oppositely charged parallel plates. (d) Electric dipole and dipole moment; derivation of the $$\vec{E}$$ at a point, (1) on the perpendicular bisector (equatorial i.e. broad side on position) of a dipole , also for r >> 21 (short dipole); dipole in a uniform electric field; net force zero, torque on an electric dipole: $$\vec\tau=\vec p×\vec E$$ and its derivation. (e) Gauss' theorem: the flux of a vector field; Q=vA for velocity vector $$\vec v\vec A.\\\vec{A}\space is \space area \space vector.\space\text{Similarly, for electric field}\space\vec{E},\\ \text{electric flux}\space\phi_E=\text{EA}\space\text{for} \vec{E}\vec{A}\space\text{and }\phi_E=\vec{E}.\vec{A}\text{for uniform}\space\vec{E}.\\\text{For nonuniform field}\space\phi_E=\int d\phi=\int \vec{E}.d\vec{A}.\\\text{Special cases for}\space\theta=0\degree, 90\degree \text{and} 180\degree.\text{Gauss' theorem,} statement:\\\phi_E =q/\epsilon_0 \space or\space\phi_E\oint\vec{dA}=\frac{q}{\epsilon_0}\text{where}\space\phi_E\space\text{is for}$$ 
70 
(ii) Electrostatic Potential, Potential Energy and Capacitance Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges; equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field. Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarisation, capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel. Capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor, energy stored in a capacitor.  (a) Concept of potential, potential difference and potential energy. Equipotential surface and its properties. Obtain an expression for electric potential at a
point due to a point charge; graphical variation of E and V vs r, V_{p}=W/q_{0}; hence V_{A}V_{B}= W_{BA/q0} (taking q_{0} from B to A) = (q=4πε_{0})(1/r_{A}1/r_{B}); derive this equation; also V_{A}=q/4πε_{0}.1/r_{A};
for q>0, V_{A}>0 and for q <0, V_{A} < 0. For a collection of charges V = algebraic sum of the potentials due to each charge;


2  Current Electricity  Mechanism of flow of current in conductors. Mobility, drift velocity and its relation with electric current; Ohm's law and its proof, resistance and resistivity and their relation to drift velocity of electrons; VI characteristics (linear and nonlinear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity. Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors; Temperature dependence of resistance and resistivity. Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel, Kirchhoff's laws and simple applications, Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge. Potentiometer  principle and its applications to measure potential difference, to compare emf of two cells; to measure internal resistance of a cell.  (a) Free electron theory of conduction; acceleration of free electrons, relaxation time τ ; electric current I = Q/t; concept of drift velocity and electron mobility. Ohm's law, current density J = I/A; experimental verification, graphs and slope, ohmic and nonohmic conductors; obtain the relation I=v_{d}enA. Derive σ = ne^{2} τ/m and ρ = m/ne^{2} τ ; effect of temperature on resistivity and resistance of conductors and semiconductors and graphs. Resistance R= V/I; resistivity ρ, given by R = ρ.l/A; conductivity and conductance; Ohm’s law as $$\vec{J}=\sigma\vec{E}; $$ colour coding of resistance.
(c) The source of energy of a seat of emf (such
as a cell) may be electrical, mechanical,
thermal or radiant energy. The emf of a
source is defined as the work done per unit
charge to force them to go to the higher point
of potential (from ve terminal to +ve
terminal inside the cell) so, ε = dW /dq; but
dq = Idt; dW = εdq = εIdt . Equating total
work done to the work done across the
external resistor R plus the work done across
the internal resistance r; εIdt=I^{2} R dt + I^{2} rdt;
ε =I (R + r); I=ε/( R + r ); also IR +Ir = ε
or V=ε Ir where Ir is called the back emf as
it acts against the emf ε; V is the terminal pd.
Derivation of formulae for combination for
identical cells in series, parallel and mixed
grouping. Parallel combination of two cells
of unequal emf. Series combination of n cells
of unequal emf (d) Statement and explanation of Kirchhoff's laws with simple examples. The first is a conservation law for charge and the 2^{nd} is law of conservation of energy. Note change in potential across a resistor ∆V=IR<0 when we go ‘down’ with the current (compare with flow of water down a river), and ∆V=IR>0 if we go up against the current across the resistor. When we go through a cell, the ve terminal is at a lower level and the +ve terminal at a higher level, so going from ve to +ve through the cell, we are going up and ∆V=+ε and going from +ve to ve terminal through the cell, we are going down, so ∆V = ε. Application to simple circuits. Wheatstone bridge; right in the beginning take I_{g}=0 as we consider a balanced bridge, derivation of R_{1}/R_{2} = R_{3}/R_{4} [Kirchhoff’s law not necessary]. Metre bridge is a modified form of Wheatstone bridge, its use to measure unknown resistance. Here R_{3} = l_{1}ρ and R_{4}=l_{2}ρ; R_{3}R_{4}=l_{1}/l_{2}. Principle of Potentiometer: fall in potential ∆V α ∆l; auxiliary emf ε_{1} is balanced against the fall in potential V_{1} across length l_{1}. ε_{1} = V_{1} =Kl_{1} ; ε_{1}/ε_{2} = l_{1}/l_{2}; potentiometer as a voltmeter. Potential gradient and sensitivity of potentiometer. Use of potentiometer: to compare emfs of two cells, to determine internal resistance of a cell. 

3  Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism  (i) Moving charges and magnetism  
Concept of magnetic field, Oersted's experiment. Biot  Savart law and its application. Ampere's Circuital law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire, straight solenoid (only qualitative treatment). Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Force on a currentcarrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field, force between two parallel currentcarrying conductorsdefinition of ampere, torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer  its sensitivity. Conversion of galvanometer into an ammeter and a voltmeter.  
(ii) Magnetism and Matter  
A current loop as a magnetic dipole, its magnetic dipole moment, magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron, magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) on the axial line and equatorial line, torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; earth's magnetic field and magnetic elements.Diamagnetic, paramagnetic, and ferromagnetic substances, with examples. Electromagnets and factors affecting their strengths, permanent magnets.  (a) Only historical introduction through Oersted’s experiment. [Ampere’s swimming rule not included]. BiotSavart law and its vector form; application; derive the expression for B (i) at the centre of a circular loop carrying current; (ii) at any point on its axis. Current carrying loop as a magnetic dipole. Ampere’s Circuital law: statement and brief explanation. Apply it to obtain $$\vec{B}$$near a long wire carrying current and for a solenoid (straight as well as torroidal). Only formula of $$\vec{B}$$ due to a finitely long conductor.


4  Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents  (i) Electromagnetic Induction Faraday's laws, induced emf and current; Lenz's Law, eddy currents. Selfinduction and mutual induction. Transformer. (ii) Alternating Current Peak value, mean value and RMS value of alternating current/voltage; their relation in sinusoidal case; reactance and impedance; 
(a) Electromagnetic induction, Magnetic flux, change in flux, rate of change of flux and induced emf; Faraday’s laws. Lenz's law, conservation of energy; motional emf ε = Blv, and power P = (Blv) ^{2}/R; eddy currents (qualitative);
(c) Sinusoidal variation of V and I with time, for the output from an ac generator; time period, frequency and phase changes; obtain mean values of current and voltage, obtain relation between RMS value of V and I with peak values in sinusoidal cases only.


5  Electromagnetic Waves  Basic idea of displacement current. Electromagnetic waves, their characteristics, their transverse nature (qualitative ideas only). Complete electromagnetic spectrum starting from radio waves to gamma rays: elementary facts of electromagnetic waves and their uses.  Concept of displacement current, qualitative descriptions only of electromagnetic spectrum; common features of all regions of electromagnetic spectrum including transverse nature ( $$\vec{E}\space\text{and}\space\vec{B}\space\text{perpendicular to}\space\vec{c}$$); special features of the common classification (gamma rays, X rays, UV rays, visible light, IR, microwaves, radio and TV waves) in their production (source), detection and other properties; uses; approximate range of λ.  
6  Optics  (i) Ray Optics and Optical Instruments Ray Optics: Reflection of light by spherical mirrors, mirror formula, refraction of light at plane surfaces, total internal reflection and its applications, optical fibres, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lens maker's formula, magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact, combination of a lens and a mirror, refraction and dispersion of light through a prism. Scattering of light. Optical instruments: Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers and their resolving powers. 
(a) Reflection of light by spherical mirrors. Mirror formula: its derivation; R=2f for spherical mirrors. Magnification.


(ii) Wave Optics Wave front and Huygen's principle. Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygen's principle. Interference, Young's double slit experiment and expression for fringe width(β), coherent sources and sustained interference of light, Fraunhofer diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum, polarisation, plane polarised light, Brewster's law, uses of plane polarised light and Polaroids. 
(a) Huygen’s principle: wavefronts  different types/shapes of wavefronts; proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygen’s theory. [Refraction through a prism and lens on the basis of Huygen’s theory not required].


7  Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter  Wave particle duality; photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard's observations; Einstein's photoelectric equation  particle nature of light. Matter waves  wave nature of particles, deBroglie relation , conclusion from DavissonGermer experiment. Xrays. s  (a) Photo electric effect, quantization of radiation; Einstein's equation E_{max} = hυ  W_{0}; threshold frequency; work function; experimental facts of Hertz and Lenard and their conclusions; Einstein used Planck’s ideas and extended it to apply for radiation (light); photoelectric effect can be explained only assuming quantum (particle) nature of radiation. Determination of Planck’s constant (from the graph of stopping potential Vs versus frequency f of the incident light). Momentum of photon p=E/c=hν/c=h/λ.


8  Atoms and Nuclei  (i) Atoms  Rutherford’s nuclear model of atom (mathematical theory of scattering excluded), based on Geiger  Marsden experiment on αscattering; nuclear radius r in terms of closest approach of α particle to the nucleus, obtained by equating ∆K=½ mv^{2} of the α particle to the change in electrostatic potential energy ∆U of the system $$[\text{U} = \frac{2e×ze}{4\pi\epsilon_0r_0}\space r_0∼ 10^{\normalsize15}m = 1\space\text{fermi};$$ atomic structure; only general qualitative ideas, including atomic number Z, Neutron number N and mass number A. A brief account of historical background leading to Bohr’s theory of hydrogen spectrum; formulae for wavelength in Lyman, Balmer, Paschen, Brackett and Pfund series. Rydberg constant. Bohr’s model of H atom, postulates (Z=1); expressions for orbital velocity, kinetic energy, potential energy, radius of orbit and total energy of electron. Energy level diagram, calculation of ∆E, frequency and wavelength of different lines of emission spectra; agreement with experimentally observed values. [Use nm and not Å for unit of λ].  
Alphaparticle scattering experiment; Rutherford's atomic model; Bohr’s atomic model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum.  
(ii) Nuclei Composition and size of nucleus. Radioactivity, alpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law. Massenergy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number; Nuclear reactions, nuclear fission and nuclear fusion. 
(a) Atomic masses and nuclear density; Isotopes, Isobars and Isotones – definitions with examples of each. Unified atomic mass unit, symbol u, 1u=1/12 of the mass of ^{12}C atom = 1.66x10^{27}kg). Composition of nucleus; mass defect and binding energy, BE= (∆m) c^{2} . Graph of BE/nucleon versus mass number A, special features  less BE/nucleon for light as well as heavy elements. Middle order more stable [see fission and fusion] Einstein’s equation E=mc^{2} . Calculations related to this equation; mass defect/binding energy, mutual annihilation and pair production as examples.


9  Electronic Devices  (i) Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits. Energy bands in conductors, semiconductors and insulators (qualitative ideas only). Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors.  
(ii) Semiconductor diode: IV characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier; Special types of junction diodes: LED, photodiode, solar cell and Zener diode and its characteristics, zener diode as a voltage regulator.  
(iii) Junction transistor, npn and pnp transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor and transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration).  
(iv) Elementary idea of analogue and digital signals, Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR). Combination of gates.  (a) Energy bands in solids; energy band diagrams for distinction between conductors, insulators and semiconductors  intrinsic and extrinsic; electrons and holes in semiconductors.  
Elementary ideas about electrical conduction in metals [crystal structure not included].  
Energy levels (as for hydrogen atom), 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, etc. of an isolated atom such as that of copper; these split, eventually forming ‘bands’ of energy levels, as we consider solid copper made up of a large number of isolated atoms, brought together to form a lattice; definition of energy bands  groups of closely spaced energy levels separated by band gaps called forbidden bands. An idealized representation of the energy bands for a conductor, insulator and semiconductor; characteristics, differences; distinction between conductors, insulators and semiconductors on the basis of energy bands, with examples; qualitative discussion only; energy gaps (eV) in typical substances (carbon, Ge, Si); some electrical properties of semiconductors. Majority and minority charge carriers  electrons and holes; intrinsic and extrinsic, doping, ptype, ntype; donor and acceptor impurities.  
(b) Junction diode and its symbol; depletion region and potential barrier; forward and reverse biasing, VI characteristics and numericals; half wave and a full wave rectifier. Simple circuit diagrams and graphs, function of each component in the electric circuits, qualitative only. [Bridge rectifier of 4 diodes not included]; elementary ideas on solar cell, photodiode and light emitting diode (LED) as semi conducting diodes. Importance of LED’s as they save energy without causing atmospheric pollution and global warming. Zener diode, VI characteristics, circuit diagram and working of zener diode as a voltage regulator.  
(c) Junction transistor; simple qualitative description of construction  emitter, base and collector; npn and pnp type; symbols showing direction of current in emitterbase region (one arrow only) base is narrow; current gains in a transistor, relation between α, β and numericals related to current gain, voltage gain, power gain and transconductance; common emitter configuration only, characteristics; IB vs VBE and IC vs VCE with circuit diagram and numericals; common emitter transistor amplifier  circuit diagram; qualitative explanation including amplification, wave form and phase reversal.  
(d) Elementary idea of discreet and integrated circuits, analogue and digital signals. Logic gates as given; symbols, input and output, Boolean equations (Y=A+B etc.), truth table, qualitative explanation. NOT, OR, AND, NOR, NAND. Combination of gates [Realization of gates not included]. Advantages of Integrated Circuits.  
10  Communication Systems  Elements of a communication system (block diagram only); bandwidth of signals (speech, TV and digital data); bandwidth of transmission medium. Modes of propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere through sky and space waves, satellite communication. Modulation, types (frequency and amplitude), need for modulation and demodulation, advantages modulation over of amplitude frequency modulation. Elementary ideas about internet, mobile network and global positioning system (GPS).  Selfexplanatory qualitative only. 
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