ISC Class 12 Commerce Syllabus 2024-25

CISCE has released the Latest Updated Syllabus of the New Academic Session 2024-25, for class 12. Class 12th Syllabus has been released by CISCE. It’s very important for both Teachers and Students to understand the changes and strictly follow the topics covered in each subject under each stream for Class 12th. We have also updated Oswal Gurukul Books as per the Latest Paper Pattern prescribed by Board for each Subject Curriculum. Students can directly access the ISC Commerce Syllabus for Class 12 of the academic year 2024-25 by clicking on the link below.

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ISC Commerce Class 12 Latest Syllabus 2024-25

There will be two papers in the subject:

Paper I - Theory: 3 hours ……80 marks

Paper II- Project Work ……20 marks

Paper - I (Theory)

80 Marks

1. Business Environment

Concept, and importance of Business Environment.

Meaning, features and importance of Business Environment;

Dimensions of Business Environment – Micro (Internal and External factors) and Macro (Economic, social, technological, political and legal) – meaning and components.

S.W.O.T. Analysis - A basic understanding of S.W.O.T. (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity and Threat) Analysis.

2. Financing

(i) Capital: Sources of finance for sole trader; partnership; Joint Stock Company; financial planning.

Importance of finance for business. Sources of finance for different types of business firms. Meaning, features and importance of financial planning. Factors affecting capital structure. Fixed capital - meaning, factors affecting fixed capital. Working capital – meaning, types; factors affecting working capital. Comparison between fixed and working capital.

(ii) Sources of finance for a Joint Stock Company.

(a) Different types of shares: equity, preference.

Bonus shares, rights issue, ESOP, Sweat Equity Shares, Retained earnings.

Long-term sources of funds.

Equity shares - features, advantages and disadvantages.

Preference shares - features, types advantages and disadvantages; distinction between equity shares and
preference shares.

Bonus and rights issue, ESOP and Sweat Equity Shares - meaning. Distinction between bonus shares and right shares.

Retained earnings – meaning, merits and demerits.

(b) Loan capital: debentures.

Debentures – meaning; kinds of debentures; advantages and disadvantages of debentures. Distinction between shares and debentures.

(c) Loans from commercial banks and Financial Institutions.

Loans from commercial banks and Financial Institutions - meaning, advantages and disadvantages.

(d) Short-term sources of funds.

Short-term sources of funds – different types of short-term financial assistance by Commercial Banks; public deposits, trade credit, customer advances, factoring, Inter corporate deposits and installment credit. Meaning,
advantages and disadvantages of various sources of funds.

(iii) Banking - latest trends.

Online services- transfer of funds through Real Time Gross Settlement (RTGS), National Electronic Funds Transfer (NEFT), Immediate Payment Service (IMPS), issue of demand drafts online meaning and features.

Online payments, e-Banking – meaning and features, advantages and disadvantages.

Mobile Banking - SMS alerts, transfer of funds, making payments - advantages and disadvantages.

Debit Cards vs Credit Cards, ATM (Automated Teller Machine) – Meaning; Debit card and credit card: features and differences.

3. Management

(i) Management: Meaning, objectives and characteristics of management.

Meaning of Management: as an activity; as a group; as a discipline; as a process. Objectives and characteristics of management.

(ii) Nature of Management – Science, Art and Profession.

Self explanatory.

(iii) Importance of Management.

Self explanatory

(iv) Principles of Management: nature of principles; need for principles.

Nature of principles of Management; need for principles of management; Taylor’s 5 scientific principles of Management; Fayol’s 14 principles of Management; Relevance of the principles of Management in today’s business scenario. Comparison of Taylor's and Fayol’s principles.

(v) Functions of Management: Planning; Organising; Staffing; Directing; Controlling and Coordinating.

(a) Planning:

Meaning, steps, importance & limitation; Types of plans; Objectives, policy, procedures, method, role, budget, program – meaning, features and differences.

(b) Organising:

Meaning, importance, steps; Structure of organization (line, line and staff, functional and divisional; Formal and
informal organization) – Meaning, features, merits, demerits and differences between line and line & staff, functional and divisional, formal and informal; Meaning and importance of delegation of authority; Decentralization v/s Centralization, comparison between delegation and decentralization, merits and demerits.

(c) Staffing:

Meaning, steps and importance; Recruitment – Meaning and sources; Selection –Meaning and procedure;
Training and development – Meaning, types of training, difference between selection and recruitment, Training and Development.

(d) Directing:

Meaning and importance; Supervision Meaning, functions and span of control;

Motivation - Meaning and Maslow’s theory; Leadership- Meaning and qualities of a good leader;

Communication - Meaning, objectives and process. Barriers to communication and overcoming barriers to communication.

(e) Controlling:

Meaning, steps and importance; Relationship between Planning and Controlling; Management by Exception.

(f) Coordination:

Meaning of Coordination; Coordination as an essence of Management.

4. Marketing

(i) Marketing: concept and functions.

Meaning and types of markets; meaning and features of marketing. Marketing concepts: traditional v/s modern - meaning and features of traditional and modern concepts of marketing. Comparison between marketing and selling. Objectives and importance of marketing; functions of marketing – meaning, features of each function of marketing.

(ii) Marketing Mix - Meaning and Elements.

Product Mix - goods and services - meaning, features and types of goods; meaning, features of services; difference between product and services. Branding: meaning and merits. Labeling: meaning and merits. Packaging: meaning and features of good packaging.

Price Mix – meaning, factors determining price.

Place Mix – meaning, channel of distribution choice of channels of distribution and physical distribution.

Promotion Mix – Meaning and elements.

Elements – Advertising, sales promotion, personal selling and publicity – meaning, features, objectives and differences.

(iii) Consumer protection: rights of consumers, methods of consumer protection.

Need for consumer protection; methods of consumer protection - self-help, legislative measures and consumer associations/NGOs, Consumer Protection Act, 2019 - Rights of consumers.

The revised pecuniary jurisdiction according to Consumer protection Amendment Act 2021 to be taken with
reference to the Consumer Disputes Redressal Commissions (National, State and District).

Difference between Consumer Protection Act, 1986 and Consumer Protection Act, 2019.

2023-24 Reduced Syllabus

(for reference purposes only)

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