ISC Class 12 Sociology Syllabus 2024-25

CISCE has released the Latest Updated Syllabus of the New Academic Session 2024-25, for class 12. 

Class 12th Syllabus has been released by CISCE. It’s very important for both Teachers and Students to understand the changes and strictly follow the topics covered in each subject under each stream for Class 12th.

We have also updated Oswal Gurukul Books as per the Latest Paper Pattern prescribed by Board for each Subject Curriculum.

Students can directly access the ISC Sociology Syllabus for Class 12 of the academic year 2024-25 by clicking on the link below.

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ISC Sociology Class 12 Latest Syllabus 2024-25

There will be two papers in the subject:

Paper I - Theory: 3 hours ……70 marks

Paper II- Practical Work ……30 marks

Paper - I (Theory) –

70 Marks

1. Social Institutions

(i) Definition and features of Social Institutions. Self explanatory.

(ii) Types of Social Institutions: Kinship, Marriage and Family Kinship: Meaning of kinship, Types of kinship: consanguineous and affinal kinship – discuss features in detail. Degree of kinship (primary, secondary, tertiary)- discuss in detail; descent- features and types (matrilineal, patrilineal and bi-lateral); types of residence (matrilocal, patrilocal and avunculocal); Kinship usages- definitions and reasons for each usage along with examples: avoidance, joking relationship, teknonymy, avunculate, amitate, couvade; also discuss descriptive and classificatory kinship terms.

Marriage: definition and functions.

Definition, features, merits, demerits, functions of the following:

  • Rules of marriage: exogamy (clan, gotra, pravara, village and sapinda) and endogamy (caste, sub-caste, varna and tribe), cousin marriage-cross and parallel cousin, levirate, sororate, hypergamy and hypogamy.
  • Forms of marriage: polygamy (polyandry and polygyny),  monogamy.

Family: definition and features (MacIver’s features); Functions of family to be discussed explaining the reasons for its universal existence.

Types of family: definition and features of each of the following- consanguineous and conjugal family (family of origin and procreation), matriarchal and patriarchal family (matripotestal, patripotestal and avuncupotestal), nuclear and joint families. Comparison between consanguineal and conjugal, matriarchal and patriarchal, nuclear and joint.

Structural changes (disintegration of the joint family), functional changes; Factors responsible for the changes. Small family norm.

2. Religion and Society

(i) Definition and concepts of religion and science; beliefs, rituals, superstitions, taboo.

Differences and similarities between religion and science.

Beliefs, rituals, superstitions, tabooDefinition of each along with relevance/functions to be explained with the help of examples.

(ii) Theories of religion: animism, naturism, totemism, functional theories.

A brief discussion of animism (Tylor’s theory), naturism (Max Mueller’s theory), totemism; functional theories (Malinowski, Radcliffe Brown and Durkhiem).

(iii) Functions and dysfunctions of religion.

A brief discussion on the positive and negative functions of religion.

(iv) Morality and social control.

Definition of morality and social control; relation between religion, morality and social control, moral code, religious code.

3. Political Organization

Political Organization and its role in bringing about change in society.

Definition of political organization; definition of Panchayati Raj, features of the 73rd Constitution Amendment Act, Role of the Bal Panchayats; discuss the role of the Panchayat in empowerment of women and children.

4. Economic Organisation

(i) Economic Organisation

Definition of economic organization, economic and free goods.

(ii) Economies of Indian tribes: food gathering, agriculture, shifting axe cultivation, handicrafts, pastoralism, industrial labour.

Economies of Indian tribes (a description of each economy with examples): (i) Food gathering; (ii) agriculture: shifting axe cultivation; features and terms used by different tribes (jhum-Naga tribe, dahi and koman- Bhuiya tribe, penda-Maria tribe, podu-Khond tribe and bewar-Baiga tribe), criticism of this type of cultivation; (iii) handicraft making; (iv) pastoralism; (v) industrial labour - migration of large numbers of Santhal, Kond and Gond to tea gardens in the north east; large resources of coal, iron and steel in Bengal, Bihar and Madhya Pradesh; examples of Santhal, Ho in pick-mining, coal-cutting, the mica and the iron & steel industry.

(iii) Agrarian Economy, Jajmani system and MGNREGA (features of each one in detail).

Agrarian Economy: land relations – owner, tenant, share cropper.

Jajmani system: caste-based occupations and exchange of services.

A brief understanding of MGNREGA as a programme of rural employment and its implications.

(iv) Traditional Markets

To be discussed with respect to features and sociological importance of Weekly markets, barter exchange- definition only.

5. Tribal India - Past, Present and Future

(i) Definition of tribe, features.

Definition of tribe, features (unity and selfsufficiency, clan and family, common totemic ancestor, territory, occupation, endogamy, dormitories, language, common culture,common name, common religion, political organization and territory).

(ii) Dormitories in Tribal India

Definition; origin of dormitories; features and functions; culture contact and change in dormitories.

(iii) Present conditions, problems and solutions.

Economic, political (regionalism and separatism), social and cultural conditions and problems.

Discuss briefly the following policies of the Government of India (post independence) for upliftment of the Indian tribes: Tribal Panchsheel, important constitutional safeguards: important Committees and Commissions: Kaka Kalelkar and Mandal Commission, Backward Classes Commission; Special Central Assistance; Economic programmes and facilities: Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP); Large Sized Multi-Purpose Cooperative Societies (LAMPS); 20 Point Programme; Programme for encouragement in crafts, home industries and agriculture; Educational policies.

6. Social Stratification

(i) Social stratification: the elements.

Definition of social stratification, inequality and difference; features of social stratification.

Class: The class system: its nature, development, types of classes.

Discuss briefly the growth, nature of the different classes (lower, middle, upper).

(ii) Caste: The caste system: concept (Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Shudra), caste origin, caste and class comparison, its features.

Definition; Theory of Divine Origin/ The Traditional Theory; characteristics of caste, merits and demerits of caste.

Comparison between caste and class.

Social mobility - brahminisation, sanskritisation and westernization - definitions only.

(iii) Gender: Difference between sex and gender, patriarchal ideology and the status of women in independent India.

Difference between sex and gender, gender bias and its consequences for both men and women – at the workplace, property rights and family status.

Gender issues: female infanticide, female foeticide, dowry, sati, child marriage, domestic violence, rape, widowhood, sexual harassment and women as perpetrators of violence.

7. Social Change and Development

(i) Social change and Development

Definition of Social Change and development – features and sources of social change.

(ii) Aspects of Development

Industrialization, urbanization, modernization, globalization and sustainable development - definitions only.

The relationship between social change and development (with respect to the above aspects of development with special focus on sustainable development, ecological and environment issues for improving quality of life for the present and future).

(iii) Social Movements: Meaning, causes and their role in society.

(iv) Role of Education in creating Social change.

Meaning and functions of education. Emphasize the role of education in creating social change. Role of Right to Education (RTE), its features and its implications to be discussed briefly.

(v) Role of Mass Media in creating Social change

Role of Mass Media (Print, electronic, audiovisual; positive and negative aspects of mass media). Understanding each of the above forms of mass media and their role in creating social change; The Right to Information (RTI)- features and importance.

2023-24 Reduced Syllabus

(for reference purposes only)

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