NCERT Solutions for Class 11 History Chapter 1 - Writing and City Life

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    81. Why do we say that it was not natural fertility and high levels of food production that were the causes of early urbanisation?

    Ans. Natural fertility and high levels of food production paved the path for the early urbanization:

    (a) It led to the beginning of the practice of settled agriculture that led to the expansion of the cities.

    (b) Animal husbandry became common due to the established settlements.

    (c) The development of arts of writing and expansion of trade was also the result of permanent establishments.

    82. Which of the following were necessary conditions and which the causes, of early urbanisation, and which would you say were the outcome of the growth of cities:

    (a) highly productive agriculture,

    (b) water transport,

    (c) the lack of metal and stone,

    (d) the division of labour,

    (e) the use of seals,

    (f) the military power of kings that made labour compulsory?

    Ans. Necessary conditions for urbanisation:

    (a) Highly productive agriculture

    (b) Water transport

    (c) The division of labor

    Causes of early urbanization:

    (a) Lack of metal and stones

    (b) The use of the seals

    (c) The military pow er of the kings made labor compulsory.

    The outcome of the growth of cities:

    (a) Development of trade

    (b) Development of transport system

    (c) Development of artistic culture

    83. Why were mobile animal herders not necessarily a threat to town life?

    Ans. The large number of people in Mari was engaged in farming or pastoral activities.
    The herders used to exchange animals, leather , meat and cheese with farmers in return for grains and metal tools. Generally they did not possess any threat to the town people.

    84. Why would the early temple have been much like a house?

    Ans. The earliest settlers in the Southern Mesopotamia began to make temples at some specific places in their cities.

    (a) The earliest temples were made of unbaked bricks and they served as the residences of various gods like Moon God of Ur, Innana the Goddess of Love.

    (b) Gradually the size of the temples got enlarged and several rooms were constructed around open courtyards.

    (c) The people of the villages and cities used to offer grains, fishes, curd and other commodities to God. God was also considered to be the theoretical owner of the agricultural resources, fishers and also the herds of the local communities.

    (d) Gradually activities like oil pressing, weaving, spinning and grain grinding was also started to be done in the temples. This led to the rise of temples as the commercial centers.

    (e) The activities such as maintaining of the records, distribution of the grains and other activities were also supervised from the temples.

    85. Of the new institutions that came into being once city life had begun, which would have depended on the initiative of the king?

    Ans. Temples, commerce, stamp making, sculpture, and writing were new institutions that were born with the beginning of urban life. These institutions depended on the king’s initiative.

    86. What do ancient stories tell us about the civilisation of Mesopotamia?

    Ans. Archaeology began in the Mesopotamia around 1840s and there were several crucial sites that were excavated.

    (a) Some of the important sites like Uruk and Mari were excavated for almost a decade as there was lot of discoveries from this site.

    (b) There have been discoveries of hundreds of Mesopotamian buildings, ornaments, potteries, tools, statues, seals and thousands of written documents.

    There are several stories associated with the Mesopotamian Civilisation. As per the Bible that purpose of the flood was to destroy the life forms from the earth.

    (a) How ever God chose a man called Noah for protection of living creatures on the Earth so that the life continues on the Earth.

    (b) Noah collected the pair of all the available species of plants and animals and put them in his boat and was able to save them from being extinct.

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