NCERT Solutions for Class 11 History Chapter 7 - Paths to Modernisation

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    80. What were the major developments before the Meiji Restoration that made it possible for Japan to modernise rapidly?

    Ans. Some of the major reforms that paved the path for the development of Japan were:

    (b) The economy of the Japan was expanding due to the rise in the population and commercial activity.

    (c) The silk industry in Japan was making advancements which led to the improvement in the economy.

    (d) The exports of the precious metals was restricted that led to the stop in the deterioration of the economy

    (e) The Japanese people started taking interest in the intellectual activities and developed a sound habit of reading.

    (f) Land surveys were regularly taken for the evaluation of the agricultural activity.

    81. Discuss how daily life was transformed as Japan developed.

    Ans. The earlier Japanese society used to be joint families in which the important decisions were made by the head of the family who exhibited control over all the other members of the family.
    This practice was changed as the development started in Japan and the concept of nuclear families came into existence. The nuclear family got more freedom which led to the increase in demand for new types of domestic goods that led to the emergence of new industries. The people’s way of living also got changed and there was a generation with the new entertainment methods.

    82. How did the Qing dynasty try and meet the challenge posed by the Western powers?

    Ans. The Qing dynasty was unable to limit the influence of the western powers. During its rule, the opium trade with Britain rose significantly that led to the huge economic losses to China and also dragged its young people into the habit of drug addiction. All these factors led to the downfall of the Qing dynasty.

    83. What were Sun Yat-sen’s Three Principles?

    Ans. Yat-Sen’s programme was called the Three Principles:

    (a) Nationalism – this meant overthrowing the Manchu who were seen as a foreign dynasty, as well as other foreign imperialists.

    (b) Democracy or establishing democratic government.

    (c) Socialism – regulating capital and equalising landholdings.

    84. How did Korea deal with the foreign currency crisis in 1997?

    Ans. The crisis was dealt with through emergency financial support provided by the International Monetary Fund (IMF). Simultaneous efforts were also made to improve the country’s economic constitution as the citizens actively contributed towards foreign loan repayment through the Gold Collection Movement.

    85. Did Japan’s policy of rapid industrialisation lead to wars with its neighbours and destruction of the environment?

    Ans. The rapid industrialisation of Japan led to wars and destruction due to the following reasons:

    (a) In the 1960s, several pressure groups protested against industrial pollution. Industrialisation had been pushed with utter disregard to its harmful effect on health and the environment.

    (b) Government action and new legal regulations helped to improve conditions.

    (c) The exploitation of the resources also became common and the Japanese also felt the need for establishing colonies for procurement of raw materials.

    86. Do you think that Mao Zedong and the Communist Party of China were successful in liberating China and laying the basis for its current success?

    Ans. The Peoples Republic of China government was established in 1949.
    It was based on the principles of the ‘New Democracy’, an alliance of all social classes.

    (a) Critical areas of the economy were put under government control.

    (b) Private enterprise and private ownership of land were abolished.

    (c) The Great Leap Forward movement launched in 1958 was a policy to galvanise the country to industrialise rapidly.

    (d) Mao was able to mobilise the masses to attain the goals set by the Party. His concern was with creating a ‘socialist man’ who would have five loves: fatherland, people, labour, science and public property

    (e) LiuShaochi (1896-1969) and Deng Xiaoping (1904-97) tried to modify the commune system as it was not working efficiently. The steel produced in the backyard furnaces was unusable industrially

    The Communist government under Mao Zedong played a prominent role in the initial development of China but it was the efforts of the Open Door Policy, initiated by Deng Xiaoping that led to the significant development of China and helped it in becoming the economic powerhouse as it is today.

    87. Did economic growth in South Korea contribute to its democratisation?

    Ans. With economic boom, citizens became aware about their political rights, leading to demands for direct election.

    (a) In June 1987, after the death of a student, June Democracy Movement began due to which Chun administration allowed direct elections.

    (b) As per the new constitution, the first direct election since 1971 was held in December 1987.

    (c) But due to the opposition parties’ failure to unite, a fellow military leader of Chun’s military faction, Roh Tae-woo, was elected.

    (d) How ever, Korea continued along the path of democracy.

    (e) In 1990, long-time opposition leader Kim Young-sam compromised with Roh’s party to create a large ruling party.

    (f) In December 1992, Kim, a civilian, was elected the president after decades of military rule.

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