NCERT Solutions for Class 11 History Chapter 5 - Changing Cultural Traditions

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    92. Which elements of Greek and Roman culture were revived in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries?

    Ans. During the period of renaissance, there was revival of the interest of the Italian people in the Greek and Latin arts, painting, architecture and literature. This period saw the revival of the intellectual abilities of people in the fields of education, arts and architecture, and other areas. This age led to the transformation of Europe in the coming times.

    93. Compare details of Italian architecture of this period with Islamic architecture.

    Ans. The city of Rome started to become powerful from the fifteenth century. From 1417, the popes were powerful as there was less conflicts in their election. The popes encouraged the study of Rome’s history. There were excavations on many sites in Rome.

    (a) The archaeological excavations led to the revival of the Imperial Roman style of architecture that came to be known as the classical style.

    (b) The popes and aristocratic classes promoted the classical architecture and they employed artists in their service for this purpose.

    (c) The decoration of buildings with the sculptures and paintings also became common. There were some famous artists who were equally talented in painting as well as making sculptures like Michelangelo and Leonardo Da Vinci.
    The Islamic architecture on the other hand followed the traditions of construction of tombs with pillars and minarets. Large number of mosques were built by the Islamic rulers as it was considered a sign of Islamic power. The architecture of most of the mosques remained same.

    94. Why were Italian towns the first to experience the ideas of humanism?

    Ans. The city-states of Italy were making economic progress during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.

    (a) They successfully established a great trading relationship with the Byzantine Empire and Islamic Civilisations. There was frequent exchange of a large number of goods between them.

    (b) There was revival of the interest in Greek and Roman arts and literature that led to the beginning of the intellectual development of the region.

    95. Compare the Venetian idea of good government with those in contemporary France.

    Ans. The cities of Venice and Genoa and other Italian cities was unlike many other cities in Europe:

    (a) The power of the clergies and the feudal chiefs was limited in these cities and they did not had much political influence.

    (b) The cities were major centres of trade due to which there was wide interference of merchants and bankers in the governing of the cities.

    On the other hand in France:

    (a) The clergies and feudal chiefs were still in possession of the majority of the powers. They were not ready to accept the new order in the society.

    (b) Due to the weak influence of the merchants and traders in the society, there was slow economic development in France.

    96. What were the features of humanist thought?

    Ans. The humanists believed in the intellectual abilities of the humans and held them capable enough to pursue any dream with proper education and training. They kept humans at the centre of everything.

    (a) The humanists believed that through the medium of education the personality of human beings can be transformed completely.

    (b) The main emphasis of the humanists was on promoting the teaching of the liberal arts that included subjects like history, philosophy, and poetry.

    (c) How ever, they also gave importance to provide physical training to the people so that they remain agile. Several schools were opened by prominent humanists that imparted their teachings. 

    97. Write a careful account of how the world appeared different to seventeenth-century Europeans.

    Ans. The seventeenth-century Europe has undergone religious, cultural, scientific as well as social transformation from the time of renaissance to the scientific revolution.

    (a) The Europeans developed the idea of rationality and reasoning that led to their growth and development.

    (b) They left the idea of religious orthodoxy which was still present in large number of countries in that time.

    (c) They have made significant progress in the fields of astronomy and science which was not the case with other nations.

    (d) The Europeans viewed other civilisations as primitive after the age of renaissance.

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