NCERT Solutions for Class 11 History Chapter 4 - The Three Orders

86. Describe two features of early feudal society in France.

Ans. Feudalism is a system in which agricultural production is dependent on the relationship between lords and peasants.

(a) The peasants in this system cultivated their lands as well as the lands of their lords.

(b) The peasants performed labour tasks for their masters and in return their masters provided them military protection.

87. How did long-term changes in population levels affect economy and society in Europe?

Ans. The rise in agricultural production led to the significant rise in population, towns and trading activities.

(a) In the towns, there emerged a new class of merchants and shopkeepers that was involved in large scale economic activities.

(b) There was rise demand of people with special skills like bankers and lawyers due to the increase in the economic activities.

(c) These changes led to the rise of the guild system in Europe. Guild was an association of the workers who belonged to a particular class of work and regulated the things related to the quality of the product, its sale and prices.

88. Why did knights become a distinct group, and when did they decline?

Ans. Due to the rise in wars in Europe and increasing threat of security, the nobles started looking for efficient and trained soldiers.

(a) The knights were powerful and trained soldiers that were hired by the nobles for ensuring security to them and their peasants.

(b) In return for their service, the nobles gave a large piece of land to the knights that ranged somewhere between 1,000 to 2,000 acres.

(c) A house was provided to the knight and his family. A church, watermill and even a wine-press were available to them.

89. What was the function of medieval monasteries?

Ans. Medieval monasteries inhabited the Christian monks and nuns. Monks were the deeply religious people who decided to spend their life in solitude away from the materialistic world. They spent most of their time in prayers, study and manual labour. Monasteries developed as the centres of religious activities as well as the centres for promoting devotional songs and other spiritual activities.

90. Imagine and describe a day in the life of a craftsman in a medieval French town.

Ans. The rise of towns took place due to the expansion of agriculture produce.

(a) This led to the increase in the crafting activities in towns. These products were very famous among the nobility

(b) A craftsman worked under the direction of guilds which regulated the activities related to his work.

(c) During the day a craftsman worked on the workshop making the antique products for selling in the market.

(d) His major task was related to making of the product and rest of the activities were regulated by guilds.

91. Compare the conditions of life for a French serf and a Roman slave.

Ans. French Serfs:

(a) Serfs cultivated plots of land that belonged to the lord and majority of the produce from this land had to be given to the lord.

(b) They had to work on the land which belonged to the lord and not any other land.

(c) They received no wages and did not possess the right to leave the estate of their master without his permission.

(d) The lord exhibited control over number of aspects related to the life of serfs. Serfs were allowed to use only the lord’s mill to grind their flour and his oven to bake their bread.

(e) The lord had the right to decide that whom a serf should marry. On some occasions, he gave his blessing to the serf’s choice in exchange of a small fee.

Roman Slaves:

(a) The Roman slaves performed plethora of tasks for their master ranging from working on his fields to his households and taking care of every small activity

(b) The Roman slaves, however, did not have such strong restrictions like the serfs under the feudal system.

(c) These slaves also ensured defence to their master.

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