Federalism Class 10 Notes Political Science (Civics) Chapter 2
What are Federalism?
Federalism is a system of government in which the power is divided between a central authority and various constituent units of the country.
Salient features of federalism
The balance of power : two kinds of federations
Coming Together Federation :
Holding Together Federation :
|1. Federal: It refers to a system of government where several states form unity but are independent in relation to their internal affairs.||9. Legislative: It refers to the power to make laws.|
|2. Federalism: It is a form of government in which the power is divided between the centre and several constituent units of the country.||10. Legislature: It refers to legislative body of a country.|
|3. Constitution: It refers to a body of fundamental principles according to which a state is acknowledged to be governed.||11. Supreme Court: It refers to the highest judicial court of a country.|
|4. State Government: It refers to a provisional government of a country which is a sub-division of a federal government and shares the powers with the union or national government.||12. High Court: It refers to the second highest judicial court of a country and highest judicial court of a state.|
|5. Central Government: It refers to the political authority which governs the entire nation.||13. Linguistic State: It refers to defining the states on the basis of languages, culture and ethnicity. For example, West Bengal, Nagaland, Uttarakhand, etc.|
|6. Jurisdiction: It refers to the legal power of making legal decisions and giving judgements.||14. Decentralisation: Decentralisation refers to taking the powers from Central and State governments and giving it to local government.|
|7. Coming Together Federation: In ‘coming together’ federations, independent states come together to form a bigger unit. It helps in sharing sovereignty and retaining identity which further increase their security. It is practised in countries like Switzerland, the USA and Australia.||15. Municipal Council: It refers to the local government of a municipality.|
|8. Holding Together Federation: In ‘holding together’ federations, a large country divides its power between the national government and the constituent states. It is practised in countries like India, Belgium and Spain. The central government is more powerful than states governments. Different constituent units usually have unequal powers and some units may have special powers.|