Q Consider the following statements about power sharing arrangements in Belgium and Sri Lanka.
Which of the statements given above are correct?
Ans (ii), (iii) and (iv)
Q Consider the following two statements on power sharing and select the answer using the codes given below:
Ans (ii) Both A and B are true.
Q Match List-I (forms of power sharing) with List-II (forms of government) and select the correct answer using the codes given below in the lists:
|(i) Power shared among different organs of government||(A) Community government|
|(ii) Power shared among government at different levels||(B) Separation of powers|
|(iii) Power shared by different social groups||(C) Coalition government|
|(iv) Power shared by two or more political parties||(D) Federal government|
Q What are the different forms of power sharing in modern democracies? Give an example of each of these.
Ans In modern democracies, some of the important power sharing arrangements are as follows:
Q State one prudential reason and one moral reason for power sharing with an example from the Indian context.
Ans Power sharing is the very spirit of democracy. The prudential reason for power sharing is that it helps to maintain harmony among all social groups and thus, ensure political stability of the country. In India, seats have been reserved in Legislature for the socially weaker sections keeping in mind this prudential reason for power sharing.
The moral reason emphasises the very act of power sharing as valuable. In a truly democratic setup, the citizens too have a stake in governance. In India the citizens can come together to debate and criticise the policies and decisions of the government. This in turn, puts pressure on the government to rethink its policies and reconsider its decisions. This active political participation is in keeping with the moral reason for power sharing.
Q Read the subsequent passage and detect one among the prudent reasons for power sharing offered in this.
“We need to give more power to the panchayats to realise the dream of Mahatma Gandhi and the hopes of the makers of our Constitution.
Panchayati Raj establishes true democracy. It restores power to the only place where power belongs in a democracy—in the hands of the people. Giving power to Panchayats is also a way to reduce corruption and increase administrative efficiency. When people participate in the planning and implementation of development schemes, they would naturally exercise greater control over these schemes. This would eliminate the corrupt middlemen. Thus, Panchayati Raj will strengthen the foundations of our democracy.”
Ans The following prudent reasons are cited into the passage for power sharing :
Q Look at the maps of Belgium and Sri Lanka. In which region, do you find concentration of different communities?
The three regions are:
Sri Lanka : Sri Lanka’s population is comprised of 75 per cent Sinhalese and 24 per cent Tamil speakers (11% Sri Lankan Tamils, 9% Moors, and 4% Indian Tamils), with smaller communities of Malays, Burghers and others. The Sri Lankan civil war, which ended in 2009, was triggered in part by the introduction of language policies that created divisions along ethnic and linguistic lines. In 1956, the Official Language Act No. 33 declared Sinhala as the only official language, replacing English which had been imposed under British colonial rule. In 1958, in response to the grievances of the Tamil speaking people, the government passed the Tamil Language (Special Provisions) Act, in which Tamil was declared an official language in the Tamil-majority North and East. The 13th Amendment in 1987 to Article 18 of the 1978 Constitution stated that “the official language of Sri Lanka is Sinhala” while “Tamil shall also be an official language,” with English as a “link language.” While this recognised both Sinhala and Tamil as official languages, the wording was still contentious, as some perceived it as referring to Tamil in a secondary sense. In response, in 1988, the 16th Amendment to the constitution corrected the position by stating, “Sinhala and Tamil shall be the languages of administration throughout Sri Lanka.”
Q What’s wrong if the majority community rules? If Sinhalas don’t rule in Sri Lanka, where else will they rule?
Ans If a majority community rules then there will be conflicts in that society or country, and there will be a feeling of loneliness that will be developed among the minority community. There should be power sharing between Sinhalas and Tamils. There should not be rule of anyone, there should be power sharing between the different communities.
Q I have a simple equation in mind. Sharing power = dividing power = weakening the country. Why don’t we start by talking of this?
Ans Sharing of power does not always mean weakening the country. Sometimes, it may create a problem by delaying decisions which are for the welfare of the people but many times it creates the possibilities of better decision-making.