NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Political Science Chapter 12 - Freedom
74. What is meant by freedom? Is there a relationship between freedom for the individual and freedom for the nation?
Ans. Freedom is the ability to carry out all of the actions necessary for one's own growth while also doing no harm to others. The freedom of the individual and the nation are closely related for the following reasons:
(a) Every person in a free country will be able to develop their creativity and abilities.
(b) The capacity of individuals to cooperate, be creative, and use their strengths in the absence of external restraints is what drives a nation's development.
(c) With the fewest societal restrictions possible, everyone can fulfil their potential in a free society.
(d) However, no society can be envisioned without limitations, thus it is important to decide whether they are acceptable or reasonable.
(e) Debates and conversations between individuals and the society are essential for examining social restrictions.
75. What is the difference between the negative and positive conception of liberty?
Ans. Negative conception of liberty:
(a) It signifies a lack of limitations and the freedom to act however one pleases.
(b) This perspect can give the powerful person greater authority so they can control the weaker people.
The following problems exist with this interpretation of liberty:
(a) It is not required to have democracy in order to have freedom because liberty is concerned with area control rather than its source.
(b) The state should only restrict an individual's freedom up to the point that he impinges on the freedom of others.
Positive conception of liberty:
(a) It refers to a society where each and every segment of the population has access to the necessary resources to exercise their legal rights.
(b) This holds that no person or group should impede the advancement of others.
(c) People are allowed to exercise all legal freedoms.
(d) It also ensures the development of those who are weak, destitute, and oppressed.
(e) It implies that removing obstacles is the key to achieving liberty.
76. What is meant by social constraints? Are constraints of any kind necessary for enjoying freedom?
Ans. Social restraints are limitations imposed by society on those who are not authorised to do so.
Constraints are required:
(a) There are several groups that call for the prohibition of movies, books, essays, magazines, etc.
(b) Although prohibition is a quick fix to satisfy need right away, it is particularly detrimental to long-term prospects owing to the growth of this habit alone.
(c) Our freedom is not constrained if we voluntarily accept limitations in order to accomplish our objectives or aspirations. In any event, we cannot claim to have our
freedom restricted if we are not forced to accept the terms.
77. What is the role of the state in upholding freedom of its citizens?
Ans. (a) In a monarchy, a citizen's freedom depends on the whim of the ruling class, whereas in a democratic state, a citizen's freedom is guaranteed by constitution.
(b) The state upholds the freedom of its citizen by providing certain right to them. The state maintains fair and justifiable constraints or reasonable restrictions on people so that they cannot harm others and their freedom. It provides positive liberty to its citizens to enable them to elaborate their capability and talent.
(c) State checks other regarding action of its people in order to maintain social stability.
78. What is meant by freedom of expression? What in your view would be a reasonable restriction on this freedom? Give examples.
Ans. Freedom of expression means the freedom to express one’s views through speech, expression, writing form, etc. If it is belong to the minimum area of ‘non-interference’. that is, negative liberty.
As per the provisions of the Indian Constitution, freedom of expression is a fundamental right.
Society may bear some inconvenience due to freedom of speech, this right protect them from people who want to restrict it. Society cannot restrict people from expressing themselves freely whether it agrees with their views or not.
A reasonable restriction of freedom of expression is one that allows society to function smoothly and curbs interference in privacy.
These restrictions are reasonable as they are necessary to function the society smoothly. Freedom of speech cannot interfere in someone’s privacy. Such as putting restriction on freedom of speech is of film censor board. Censor board of films ban some portion of film to prevent adverse effect on society or disturbance of peace.
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