NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Political Science Chapter 15 - Rights

61. What are rights and why are they important? What are the bases on which claims to rights can be made?

Ans. Rights are the entitlement to the citizens that are backed by the laws.

(a) These are the justified claims by an individual in the society. We can say they are the necessary dues to every individual. It must be recognised by the society as well as the government as it is a legitimate claim of a citizen. These are claims that are considered important by the individuals for leading a life of dignity and respect.

(b) Claims to rights can be made on the basis of the legal laws and also on the basis of the natural laws.

62. On what grounds are some rights considered to be universal in nature? Identify three rights which you consider universal. Give reasons.

Ans. Universality in nature means for those rights that all human beings regardless of their place in society confers these rights. The assumption behind universal, ensure self-respect and dignity by virtue of being born as humans.

The three universal rights are as follows:

Right to education is considered to be universal in nature because this is must for an individual to develop the capacity to logical reasoning, skills and enables them to make informed choices in life. This helps the individual to make good use of other rights.

Right to livelihood ensures self-respect and dignity of the individuals through economic independence.

Freedom of expression is important for all human beings as it develops creativity and originality and allows for free expression of ideas and beliefs.

63. Discuss briefly some of the new rights claims which are being put forward in our country today — for example the rights of tribal peoples to protect their habitat and way of life, or the rights of children against bonded labour.

Ans. Following points are some of the new right claims which are being put forward in our country today:

(a) The rights of tribal people to protect their habitat and way of life is one the example that has set the new conception of a secure and respectful life of individuals along with preserving their traditional way of living and access to resources.

(b) This is a due to change in society, which to demand provide special provisions or rights to people to protect indigenous culture. Tribal people are given rights to own a part of land of the forest to which they belong.

(c) Some of the special facilities such as reservation in education, job, and constitution of India also provide reserved seat in election. So that they can compete with the rest of the society on equal terms.

(d) The rights of children against bonded labour are necessary to prevent their exploitation and ensure a safe childhood for them.

(e) The right to education is a new right given in the Indian Constitution.

(f) Right to information is a new right that helps the citizens to know the status or the procedure of the services that they are entitled to receive.

64. Differentiate between political, economic and cultural rights. Give examples of each kind of right.

Ans. Political Rights gave power to the citizens to choose their representatives and become a part of the democracy. For example right to vote.

Economic rights are those through which citizens can demand from the government to make provisions for their employment or for regulations in the work place. Like demand for equal pay for equal work.

Cultural right is to guarantee that people and communities have an access to culture and can participate in the culture of there section.

For example: The imparting of education in one’s mother tongue so that they effectively get educated without much problems.

65. Rights place some limits on the authority of the state. Explain with examples.

Ans. The rights puts checks and balances on the arbitrary use of power by the state against the citizens of the nation.

(a) The Constitution of India grants some fundamental rights to every citizen which needs to be ensured to them by the state.

(b) If there is any violation of these rights the aggrieved person can take the help of the courts for securing its rights. The government has to follow the orders of the courts.

(c) The State cannot limit the fundamental rights of the citizens other than in some extraordinary situations which demands extraordinary measures.

(d) The State has to give justifications before the court before curtailing the rights of the citizens.

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