NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Political Science Chapter 13 - Equality

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    67. Some people argue that inequality is natural while others maintain that it is equality which is natural and the inequalities which we notice around us are created by society. Which view do you support? Give reasons.

    Ans. There are basically two types of inequalities:

    Natural and Social inequalities.

    Natural inequalities are those inequalities that are produced among the people due to their varying capabilities and the dedication towards their work. Such inequalities take place due to the higher aptitude and commitment of a person towards his career in which he outshines his competitors. Such inequalities were not deemed irrational as they are based on the merit of the person. It is generally assumed that the natural differences between the individuals cannot be

    Social inequalities are those that took rise due to the inequalities of opportunity to some sections of the society. This type of inequality takes place due to the discrimination against certain groups in the society. There are certain societies who give more respect to the people involved in intellectual work rather than those involved in the manual work.

    Natural Inequalities can be justified but social inequalities cannot be justified.

    68. There is a view that absolute economic equality is neither possible nor desirable. It is argued that the most a society can do is to try and reduce the gaps between the richest and poorest members of society. Do you agree?

    Ans. Economic inequality is a common feature of the society as we can see differences between the people in terms of their material wealth, properties and their income.

    (a) The existence of the absolute economic equality is not possible as there are several factors which determine the wealth of the individual.

    (b) The people with good intellect and sound level of education are tend to earn better than the other people those who have less skill.

    (c) However the government can make provisions to provide some special incentives to the weaker economic sections of the society to reduce the margin of wealth
    among them as compared to the affluent sections. This way a more equitable society can be formed.

    69. Match the following concepts with appropriate instances:

    (a) Affirmative action (i) Every adult citizen has a right to vote
    (b) Equality of opportunity (ii) Banks offer higher rate of interest to senior citizen
    (c) Equal Rights. (iii) Every child should get free education

    Ans. (a)-(ii), (b)-(iii), (c)-(i)

    70. A government report on farmers’ problems says that small and marginal farmers cannot get good prices from the market. It recommends that the government should intervene to ensure a better price but only for small and marginal farmers. Is this recommendation consistent with the principle of equality?

    Ans. This problem is justified for the intervention of the government as farmers discussed here are small and marginal and it is the duty of the government to help them due to their economic deprivations. Government should provide fair price to these farmers as against the other large farmers. Therefore recommendation consistent in term of economic equality.

    71. Which of the following violate the principles of equality? And why?

    (a) Every child in class will read the text of the play by turn.

    Ans. No violation. Because every child is asked to do the same activity in the class without any discrimination.

    (b) The Government of Canada encouraged white Europeans to migrate to Canada from the end of the Second World War till 1960.

    Ans. This shows discrimination towards the people belonging to the African descent and are black in color. This shows sign of racism.

    (c) There is a separate railway reservation counter for the senior citizens.
    Ans. No violation as senior citizens should receive certain special treatments.

    (d) Access to some forest areas is reserved for certain tribal communities.

    Ans. This shows discrimination as all the tribal people should be treated equitably.

    72. Here are some arguments in favour of the right to vote for women.
    Which of these are consistent with the idea of equality? Give reasons.

    (a) Women are our mothers. We shall not disrespect our mothers by denying them the right to vote.

    (b) Decisions of the government affect women as well as men, therefore they also should have a say in choosing the rulers.

    (c) Not granting women the right to vote will cause disharmony in the family.

    (d) Women constitute half of humanity. You cannot subjugate them for long by denying them the right to vote.

    Ans. The statements a and d are correct.

    This is consistent with the idea of equality as every adult women has the right to take part in the election process. As women consists half the population of the world they should have a say in the political elections.

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