NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Political Science Chapter 7 - Federalism

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    84. From the list of following events, which ones would you identify with the functioning of federalism? Why?

    (a) The Centre on Tuesday announced Sixth Schedule status to GNLF-led Darjeeling Gorkha Hill Council, which would ensure greater autonomy to the governing body in the Hill district of West Bengal. A tripartite Memorandum of Settlement was signed in New Delhi between the Centre, West Bengal government and the Subhas Ghising-led Gorkha National Liberation Front (GNLF) after two days of hectic deliberations.

    (b) Government action plan for rain-hit states: Centre has asked the rain-ravaged States to submit detailed plans for reconstruction to enable it to respond to their demands for extra relief expeditiously.

    (c) New Commissioner for Delhi: The Capital is getting a new municipal commissioner. Confirming this, present MCD Commissioner Rakesh Mehta said he has received his transfer orders and that he is likely to be replaced by IAS officer Ashok Kumar, who is serving as the Chief Secretary in Arunachal Pradesh: Mehta, a 1975 batch IAS officer, has been heading the MCD for about three-anda- half years.

    (d) CU Status for Manipur University: Rajya Sabha on Wednesday passed a Bill to convert the Manipur University into a Central University with the Human Resource
    Development Minister promising such institutions in the North Eastern States of Arunachal Pradesh, Tripura and Sikkim as well.

    (e) Funds released: The Centre has released ₹553 lakh to Arunachal Pradesh under its rural water supply scheme. The first instalment was of ₹466.81 lakh.

    (f) We’ll teach the Biharis how to live in Mumbai: Around 100 Shiv Sainiks stormed J. J. Hospital, disrupted daily operations, raised slogans and threatened to take matters into their own hands if no action was taken against non-Maharashtrian students.

    (g) Demand for dismissal of Government: The Congress Legislature Party (CLP) in a representation submitted to the State Governor recently, has demanded dismissal of the ruling Democratic Alliance of Nagaland (DAN) government for its alleged financial mismanagement and embezzlement of public money.

    (h) NDA government asks Naxalites to surrender arms: Amid a walkout by opposition RJD and its allies Congress and CPI (M), the Bihar government today
    appealed to the Naxalites to shun the path of violence and reaffirmed its pledge to root out unemployment to usher in a new era of development in Bihar.

    Ans. (a) The very much fact that the State concerned, i.e., West Bengal was appointed as a party to the settlement and marked the event as a manifestation of working of federalism.

    (b) It throws light on the sensitivity of the centre which wants to provide help to the rainravaged states to sort out their problems.

    Hence, it can be identified as federalism.

    (c) No it does not involve the functioning of federalism because this appointment reflect a centralised authority.

    (d) In the constitution of India, education-subject comes under the concurrent list to strengthen federation by establishing central institutes to be identified as a functioning of federalism.

    (e) This is also federalism because the centre releases funds for States under its rural water supply scheme. (Arunachal Pradesh).

    (f) This cannot be identified as federalism because the act of Shiv Sainiks does not promote fraternity, cooperation or mutual trust and respect.

    (g) No, it does not involve the function of federalism as demand for the dismissal of duly elected state government is an attack on the federal structure.

    (h) Yes, it involves the functioning of federalism as the problem of Naxalism is being tackled by the government.

    85. Think which of the following statements would be correct. State why.

    (a) Federalism enhances the possibility of people from different regions to interact without the fear of one’s culture being imposed upon them by others.

    (b) Federal system will hinder easier economic transactions between two different regions that have distinct types of resources.

    (c) A federal system will ensure that the powers of those at the centre will remain limited.

    Ans. (a) This is valid since the federal government divides power among the federal government, state governments, and local governments.

    (b) This assertion is incorrect since the resources are of diverse types, and federalism encourages trade between different regions.

    (c) This is correct since federalism gives the constituent parts of the federation additional power.

    86. Based on the first few articles of Belgian constitution given below, explain how federalism is visualized in that country. Try and write a similar Article for the Constitution of India.

    Title I:

    On Federal Belgium, its components and its territory.

    Article 1: Belgium is a Federal State made up of communities and regions.

    Article 2: Belgium is made up of three communities: The French Community, the Flemish Community and the German Community.

    Article 3: Belgium is made up of three regions: The Walloon region, the Flemish region and the Brussels region.

    Article 4: Belgium has four linguistic regions: The French-speaking region, the Dutch-speaking region, the bilingual region of Brussels Capital and the German-speaking region. Each commune (county borough) of the Kingdom is a part of one of these linguistic regions

    Article 5: The Walloon region is made up of the following provinces: The Walloon Brabant, Hainault, Liege, Luxemburg and Namur. The Flemish region is made up of the following provinces: Antwerp, the Flemish Brabant, West Flanders, East Flanders and Limburg.

    Ans. (a) Article 1: Declares India to be a federation of states.

    (b) Article 2: While India aims to be a society free of caste discrimination, India is a secular country.

    (c) Article 3: India is made up of 28 states and seven union territories. India must be a union of states, according to Article 1 of the Indian Constitution.

    (d) In the first schedule, the states and union territories must be listed.

    (e) Article 4: There are 22 official languages in India and they are covered under the 8th schedule of the Indian constitution.

    (f) Article (5): According to states and union territories must be listed in the first schedule.

    87. Imagine that you were to rewrite the provisions regarding federalism. Write an essay of not more than 300 words making your suggestions about:

    (a) division of powers among the centre and the States,

    (b) distribution of financial resources,

    (c) methods of resolving inter-State disputes and

    (d) appointment of Governors

    Ans. Federalism is an institutional structure that allows two sets of politics to coexist: one at the national level and another at the state level:

    (a) Division of powers:

      • The federal government and the state governments each have their own set of powers.
      • The subjects are explicitly delineated in the constitution's listings.
      • The judiciary resolves the conflicts.
      • Economic and financial power has been concentrated in the hands of the central government.

    (b) Distribution of financial resources:

      • Certain taxes, including stamp duty and taxes on the manufacture of medicines and cosmetic treatments, are levelled by the federal government but collected by the states.
      • Certain taxes, such as succession of property other than agricultural land, terminal taxes on commodities and persons transported by train, sea, and air, taxes on railway freight and fares, taxes on newspapers, and so on, are levied and collected by the centre and divided among the states.
      • On the suggestion of the finance commission, the centre levies and collects taxes that are allocated between the centre and the states, such as income
        tax on income other than agricultural land.
      • Grants in lieu of export duty on jute and jute products have been awarded to Bihar, Odisha, West Bengal, and Assam.

    (c) Methods of resolving inter-state dispute:

      • The Parliament can create an inter-state committee if it deems it necessary.
      • This committee investigates the issue and reports to Parliament with its findings and suggestions.
      • Example:
        -Chandigarh is a source of contention between Haryana and Punjab.
        -Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, and Gujarat are at odds over the Narmada River's water.

    (d) Appointment of Governors:

      • The President of India appoints state governors on the suggestion of the Centre's Council of Ministers.
      • As a result, governors serve as representatives of the federal government in each state, reporting on the state's status to the federal government as needed.

    88. Which of the following should be the basis for formation of a State? Why?

    (a) Common language

    (b) Common economic interests

    (c) Common religion

    (d) Administrative convenience

    Ans. There are numerous factors that determines the formation of the state ranging from the language, culture, administrative convenience, geographical location, economic and political interests and several more. All these factors are taken into due consideration before the formation of the new state.

    89. Majority of people from the States of north India—Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar—speak Hindi. If all these States are combined to form one State, would it be in tune with the idea of federalism? Give arguments.

    Ans. Federalism is an institutional system that allows two political seats to coexist: one at the national level and one at the regional level. If all of India's Hindi-speaking areas, such as Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, and Gujarat, were amalgamated, there would be only a single unit, which could not be considered a federation because federation has many characteristics one of them is unity in diversity that will not appear in the example.

    90. List four features of the Indian Constitution that give greater power to the central government than the State government.

    Ans. Strong Centre

    (a) The division of lists has delineated various subjects, such as the union list, which has 97 subjects, the states list, which has 66 subjects, and the concurrent list, which has 47 subjects.

    (b) The union list includes all subjects that are of national importance.

    (c) In the event of a disagreement on a topic on the concurrent list, the central government's position is more important than the state government's.

    (d) When a national or partial state of emergency is declared, the central government is given authority to enact legislation on the subjects included in the state list.

    The Emergency Powers

    (a) The government is converted from a federation to a unitary form during the declaration of national emergency. As a result, the state legislature and executive are
    exercised by the federal government, but the state legislature and executive are not disbanded.

    (b) If an emergency is proclaimed in a state due to a failure of the constitutional machinery, the legislative powers are transferred to the centre, while the executive powers are transferred to the President.

    (c) In the event that the President declares a financial emergency, the centre is once again permitted to give economic directives, which they shall follow.

    Financial Dependance of State on Centre

    (a) Rather than the states, the centre has more revenue-generating resources.

    (b) If necessary, the states can borrow money from the federal government.

    (c) The states apply to the federal government for grants-in-aid.

    (d) As a result, states are financially reliant on the federal government.

    Appointment of Governors

    (a) The Governor is both the state's leader  and a representative of the federal government.

    (b) He is appointed by the President of India and serves till the President's pleasure expires.

    (c) As a result, governors carry out the wishes of the central government.

    91. Why are many States unhappy about the role of the Governor?

    Ans. (a) The role of Governor is referred to as an interference by the central government in the functioning of the state government, hence it becomes controversial.

    (b) When power is vested in distinct lands at the centre and in the state, the debate gets even more heated.

    (c) According to Article 356, the Governor's role has become controversial because it provides the way for President's rule in any state.


    (a) In the 1980s, the federal administrations in Andhra Pradesh and Jammu & Kashmir deposed elected governments.

    (b) In 2005, the state assembly in Bihar was similarly dissolved on the Governor's suggestion. Despite the fact that it was eventually declared unconstitutional. The
    states remain dissatisfied with Governors as a result of their practices.

    92. President’s rule can be imposed in a State if the government is not being run according to the provisions of the Constitution. State whether any of the following conditions are a fit case for imposition of President’s rule in the State. Give reasons.

    (a) Two members of the State legislative assembly belonging to the main opposition party have been killed by criminals and the opposition is demanding dismissal of the State government.

    (b) Kidnapping of young children for ransom is on rise. The number of crimes against women are increasing.

    (c) No political party has secured a majority in the recent elections of the State Legislative Assembly. It is feared that some MLAs from the other parties may be lured to support a political party in return for money.

    (d) Different political parties are ruling in the State and at the centre and they are bitter opponents of each other.

    (e) More than 2000 people have been killed in the communal riots.

    (f) In the water dispute between the two States, one State government refused to follow the decision of the Supreme Court.

    Ans. (a) This is because this situation does not demonstrate a breakdown in the constitutional mechanism, the President's rule cannot be declared under Article 356.

    (b) This is because this situation does not represent a breakdown in the constitutional system, the President's rule cannot be imposed.

    (c) It does not indicate that the President's ruling will be enforced.

    (d) In the state, two parties control, and federalism rules at the federal level; they may be bitter rivals, but this is not the time to impose President's rule.

    (e) The imposition of President's rule is appropriate because it has resulted in a serious law and order situation in the state, demonstrating the constitutional
    machinery's failure.

    (f) Declaring President's Rule is appropriate since no state can deviate from the Supreme Court's ruling, and if a state does, it signifies the administration is not being carried out in accordance with the constitution's requirements.

    93. What are the demands raised by the States in their quest for greater autonomy?

    Ans. Various states and political groups have used a variety of tactics to gain greater autonomy:

    (a) For larger financial powers, the state sought autonomous sources of revenue, i.e. Punjab and Tamil Nadu.

    (b) States demand residual powers because they believe they are weak and their interests are being undermined.

    (c) Demand that you be given more legislative power over the subjects listed in the State list.

    (d) On cultural and linguistic matters, states desire autonomy

    94. Should some States be governed by special provisions? Does this create resentment among other States? Does this help in forging greater unity among the regions of the country?

    Ans. If some states are awarded the unique provision under the constitution, it causes anger among other states:

    (a) It is essential that some states should be governed by the special provisions on the basis of historical, cultural and social circumstances and administrative requirements. The north-eastern states, Jammu & Kashmir, the hilly state of Himachal Pradesh and some other states like Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Gujarat, Maharashtra and Sikkim are governed by special provisions. The special provisions are made according to the special requirements. For example, the north-eastern states of India have a unique history and tribal culture that needs to be protected.

    (b) This has created resentment among other states as there is a fear that these provisions would lead to separation in those areas. Many people oppose these provisions because they believe that there should be equal division of powers in federal state.

    (c) No, this does not forge greater unity among the regions of the country as it leads to a feeling of bias.

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