What are Acid Bases and Salts?

Families of Salts

  • Sodium Salts — NaCl, NaNO3, Na2SO4, Na2CO3, CH3COONa etc.
  • Potassium Salts — KCl, KNO3, K2SO4, KBr, K2CO3
  • Ammonium Salts— NH4Cl, NH4NO3, NH4Br
  • Magnesium Salts— MgCl2, MgSO4, MgCO3
  • Calcium Salts— CaCl2, Ca(COO)2, etc.

Chloride Salts

  • Formula
  • NaCl
  • KCl
  • NH4Cl
  • BaCl2
  • MgCl2
  • Name of Salt
  • Sodium chloride
  • Potassium chloride
  • Ammonium chloride
  • Barium chloride
  • Magnesium chloride
  • Base Involved
  • NaOH
  • KOH
  • NH4OH
  • Ba (OH)2
  • Mg(OH)2

Nitrate SaltsF

  • Formula
  • NaNO3
  • KNO4
  • Ca(NO3)2
  • Name of Salt
  • Sodium nitrate
  • Potassium nitrate
  • Calcium nitrate
  • Base Involved
  • NaOH
  • KOH
  • Ca(OH)2

Sulphate Salts

  • Formula
  • Na2NO3
  • K2SO4
  • MgSO4
  • Name of Salt
  • Sodium sulphate
  • Potassium sulphate
  • Magnesium sulphate
  • Base Involved
  • NaOH
  • KOH
  • Mg(OH)2

Carbonate Salts

  • Formula
  • Na2NO3
  • K2CO3
  • CaCO3
  • Name of Salt
  • Sodium Carbonate
  • Potassium Carbonate
  • Calcium Carbonate
  • Base Involved
  • NaOH
  • KOH
  • Ca(OH)2
  • 1. Acid: An acid is any hydrogen-containing substance that is capable of donating a proton (hydrogen ion) to another substance. They are known to turn blue litmus paper to red.
  • 2. Base:A base is a molecule which is able to accept a hydrogen ion from an acid. They are known to turn red litmus paper to blue.
  • 3. Ion: An atom or molecule with a net electric charge due to the loss or gain of one or more electrons.
  • 4. Ionisation: The process of forming ions in aqueous solution is called ionisation.
  • 5. Salt: The compound formed by reaction of an acid with a base, e.g., NaCl.
  • 6. Strong acid: An acid which dissociate completely when dissolved in water furnishing is called as H+ ions strong acid.
  • 7. Strong base: A base which dissociates completely in aqueous solution furnishing OH– ions is called as strong base.
  • 8. Weak acid: A weak acid is one which does not ionise fully, when it is dissolved in water.
  • 9. Weak base: A weak base is one which does not ionise fully, when it is dissolved in water
  • 10. Alkali: An alkali is a substance that produces OH– ions in water.
  • 11. Indicators: Indicators are weak acids or weak bases that show a change in colour as the concentration of Hydrogen ions in a solution changes or the pH of a solution changes. The indicators dissociate slightly in the water to form ions. Some examples of indicators are Litmus, turmeric, phenolphthalein, etc.
  • 12. pH: pH measures the strength of acid and bases. pH stands for the potential of Hydrogen, and is approximately the negative of the base 10 log of molar concentration of H+ ions.
  • 13. Universal Indicator: Universal indicator is defined as the mixture of different indicators that gives different colours at different pH levels of the entire scale. It helps to interpret the acidic or basic nature of a substance. It exhibits several colour changes over a pH value range from 0 to 14 to indicate the acidity or alkalinity of solutions, where pH value 7 indicates neutral, pH value below 7 indicates acidity and pH value above 7 indicates alkalinity or basicity of a solution.
  • 14. Hydrogenation: A chemical reaction between molecular hydrogen and another compound or element, usually in the presence of a catalyst such as nickel, palladium or platinum.
  • 15. Antacid: The substance which neutralizes acidity (especially in the stomach).
  • 16. Aqua regia: It is a mixture of concentrated hydrochloric acid (HCl) and concentrated nitric acid (HNO3) at a ratio of either 3 : 1.
  • 17. Enamel: This tough shell is the hardest tissue in the human body and it covers the crown which is the part of the tooth that is visible outside of the gums.
  • 18. Hard water: Water that contains mineral salts (as calcium and magnesium ions) which limits the formation of lather with soap.
  • 19. Amphoteric substance: The substance having property of both acid as well as base.