What are Carbon and its Compounds?

  • The study of carbon compounds is called organic chemistry.
  • Carbon is a non-metal having atomic number 6.
  • Bonding in carbon : Covalent bonding is present in carbon.
  • 1. Hydrocarbons: An organic compound containing only carbon and hydrogen atoms.
  • 2. Allotropy: The phenomenon of existence of two or more different physical forms of a chemical element.
  • 3. Catenation: The property of self linking of elements to form a long chains of compounds.
  • 4. Tetravalency:Tetravalency is the state of an atom in which there are four electrons available with the atom for covalent chemical bonding.
  • 5. Saturated hydrocarbons: A substance in which the atoms are linked by single bonds.
  • 6. Unsaturated hydrocarbons: A substance in which atoms are linked by double or triple bond.
  • 7. Isomers: Compounds having similar molecular formula but different structure are known as Isomers.
  • 8. Isomerism: The phenomenon in which the compounds have the same molecular formula and different structural formula is known as Isomerism.
  • 9. Homologous series: A homologous series is a group of organic chemical
  • compounds, usually listed in order of increasing size, that have a similar structure (and hence also similar properties) and whose structures differ only by the number of CH2 units in the main carbon chain.
  • 10. Esterification: The chemical reaction that takes place during the formation of an ester is called esterification. Ester is obtained by an esterification reaction of an alcohol with carboxylic acid.
  • 11. Saponification: A chemical reaction in which an ester is heated with an alkali to make soap.
  • 12. Soaps: Soaps are sodium and potassium salts of long chain of fatty acids such as stearic acid, palmitic acid etc.
  • 13. Detergents: They are ammonium or sulphonate salts of long chain hydrocarbons.
  • 14. Hydrophobic substance: “Water fearing”. Hydrophobic compounds do not dissolve easily in water, and are usually non-polar.
  • 15. Hydrophilic substance: Having an affinity for water; capable of interacting with water through hydrogen bonding.