Carbon And Its Compounds Class 10 Notes Chemistry Science
What are Carbon and its Compounds?
The study of carbon compounds is called organic chemistry.
Carbon is a non-metal having atomic number 6.
Bonding in carbon : Covalent bonding is present in carbon.
|Number of carbon atoms in one molecule||Greek name (AlK)|
|One carbon atom||Meth|
|Two carbon atoms||Eth|
|Three carbon atoms||Prop|
|Four carbon atoms||But|
|Five carbon atoms||Pent|
|Six carbon atoms||Hex|
|Seven carbon atoms||Hept|
|Eight carbon atoms||Oct|
|1. Hydrocarbons: An organic compound containing only carbon and hydrogen atoms.||9. Homologous series: A homologous series is a group of organic chemical compounds, usually listed in order of increasing size, that have a similar structure (and hence also similar properties) and whose structures differ only by the number of CH2 units in the main carbon chain.|
|2. Allotropy: The phenomenon of existence of two or more different physical forms of a chemical element.||10. Esterification: The chemical reaction that takes place during the formation of an ester is called esterification. Ester is obtained by an esterification reaction of an alcohol with carboxylic acid.|
|3. Catenation: The property of self linking of elements to form a long chains of compounds.||11. Saponification: A chemical reaction in which an ester is heated with an alkali to make soap.|
|4. Tetravalency: Tetravalency is the state of an atom in which there are four electrons available with the atom for covalent chemical bonding.||12. Soaps: Soaps are sodium and potassium salts of long chain of fatty acids such as stearic acid, palmitic acid etc.|
|5. Saturated hydrocarbons: A substance in which the atoms are linked by single bonds.||13. Detergents: They are ammonium or sulphonate salts of long chain hydrocarbons.|
|6. Unsaturated hydrocarbons: A substance in which atoms are linked by double or triple bond.||14. Hydrophobic substance: “Water fearing”. Hydrophobic compounds do not dissolve easily in water, and are usually non-polar.|
|7. Isomers: Compounds having similar molecular formula but different structure are known as Isomers.||15. Hydrophilic substance: Having an affinity for water; capable of interacting with water through hydrogen bonding.|
|8. Isomerism: The phenomenon in which the compounds have the same molecular formula and different structural formula is known as Isomerism.|