Carbon And Its Compounds Class 10 Notes Chemistry Science
Chapter 4

What are Carbon and its Compounds?

The study of carbon compounds is called organic chemistry.
Carbon is a non-metal having atomic number 6.
Bonding in carbon : Covalent bonding is present in carbon.

Number of carbon atoms in one molecule Greek name (AlK)
One carbon atom Meth
Two carbon atoms Eth
Three carbon atoms Prop
Four carbon atoms But
Five carbon atoms Pent
Six carbon atoms Hex
Seven carbon atoms Hept
Eight carbon atoms Oct
1. Hydrocarbons: An organic compound containing only carbon and hydrogen atoms. 9. Homologous series: A homologous series is a group of organic chemical compounds, usually listed in order of increasing size, that have a similar structure (and hence also similar properties) and whose structures differ only by the number of CH2 units in the main carbon chain.
2. Allotropy: The phenomenon of existence of two or more different physical forms of a chemical element. 10. Esterification: The chemical reaction that takes place during the formation of an ester is called esterification. Ester is obtained by an esterification reaction of an alcohol with carboxylic acid.
3. Catenation: The property of self linking of elements to form a long chains of compounds. 11. Saponification: A chemical reaction in which an ester is heated with an alkali to make soap.
4. Tetravalency: Tetravalency is the state of an atom in which there are four electrons available with the atom for covalent chemical bonding. 12. Soaps: Soaps are sodium and potassium salts of long chain of fatty acids such as stearic acid, palmitic acid etc.
5. Saturated hydrocarbons: A substance in which the atoms are linked by single bonds. 13. Detergents: They are ammonium or sulphonate salts of long chain hydrocarbons.
6. Unsaturated hydrocarbons: A substance in which atoms are linked by double or triple bond. 14. Hydrophobic substance: “Water fearing”. Hydrophobic compounds do not dissolve easily in water, and are usually non-polar.
7. Isomers: Compounds having similar molecular formula but different structure are known as Isomers. 15. Hydrophilic substance: Having an affinity for water; capable of interacting with water through hydrogen bonding.
8. Isomerism: The phenomenon in which the compounds have the same molecular formula and different structural formula is known as Isomerism.