Commerce Unsolved Sample Paper Solutions ISC Class 12
(i) (b) social environment
The social environment consists of all the social and cultural forces within which business firms operate. Such type of environment describes the characteristics of the society in which the organisation exists. It includes components such as social attitudes, customs, traditions, rituals, culture, life styles, etc.
(ii) (b) Stock option
Stock option is a kind of financial incentive. The other three options as given in the question that is, promotion, job security and employee participation are non-financial incentives that focus on psychological and social needs of the employees.
(iii) (a) Cooperation, Not individualism
The principle of Cooperation, not individualism is given by F.W. Taylor. All the other principles are given by Fayol.
(iv) (c) Sales promotion
Promotion of products through an exhibition is one of sales promotion tools in marketing.
(v) (d) to establish standards
The first step in the controlling process is to set the performance standards. Standards are those criteria, on which the actual performances are measured. These standards serve as a benchmark towards which an organisation strives to work.
(vi) (b) Organisational culture
Organisational culture comes under the internal environment of the business firm.
(vii) (c) Assertion is true but Reason is false.
Delegation means transfer of authority or power from the centralised system to smaller departments or units. Thus, the reasoning contradicts the assertion.
(viii) (a) False
(ix) (c) Self-help or Self-regulation
Self-help or Self-regulation is a voluntary imposition of discipline used by manufacturers to enable consumer protection. It involves ethical practices in dealing with consumer to serve their interest. Serving consumers is in the best long-term interest of business. Most of the forward-looking organisations follow
(x) Short message Service
SMS (Short Message Service) is a text messaging service component of most telephone, internet, and mobile device systems.
(xi) To get steady income without any risk Rohan should invest in preference shares. Preference shares are the shares which carry certain privileges or preferential rights – both regarding the fixed rate of dividend and repayment of capital in the event of winding up of the company.
(xii) The marketing function described in the above lines are physical distribution. Physical distribution refers to the movement of finished goods from a company’s distribution and fulfilment network to the end user.
(xiii) (d) All of these
Leadership is a key factor in making an organisation successful because good leaders always produce good results through their followers. A leader maintains personal relations and influences the behaviour of the people. He provides needed confidence, support and encouragement to the people by managing conflicts. He introduce changes and influences people to accept them without resisting it.
|Basic||Fixed Capital||Working Capital|
|1. Purpose||It is required for investment in fixed asset.||It is required for investment in current assets.|
|2. Time Period||It is invested for a long-term.||It is invested for a short-term.|
|3. Performance||It provides solvency to the concern.||It provides liquidity to the concern.|
|4. Source||It is generally raised through shares, debentures and long-term loans.||It is generally raised through public deposit, trade credit and banks.|
The shares that allow shareholders to receive dividends announced by the corporation before getting them to the equity shareholders are known as Preference shares, or preferred stocks.
Following are the merits of preference shares :
The four functions of the supervisor are as follows:
The importance of decentralisation is as follows :
Packaging is the process of designing and producing the package for a product. A package is a wrapper or container in which a product is enclosed or sealed.
A well-designed good packaging generally has the following features :
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs highlighted in the example are as follows:
Training is important in every organisation, as it aims at building the skills and abilities of the employees to perform their tasks. The following points highlight the importance of training in an organisation:
(i) Social environment consists of all social activities like culture, traditions, values, beliefs and demographic profile of the members of the society. The social environment consists of the behavioural characteristics of the members of the society through which they behave and make decisions as consumers.
Following are the components of social environment:
(ii) Environment analysis is the study of various factors of the environment affecting the business, like economic factors, political factors, technological factors, global factors, etc. Environment analysis helps to anticipate opportunities and plan to take appropriate actions to avail these opportunities. By careful analysis of the environment, the business comes to know the opportunities provided and threats posed by the environment.
However, in general, the manager takes the help of SWOT analysis to analyse the environment.
Two parts of SWOT analysis are:
(i) E.S.O.P: An Employee Stock Option Plan is a scheme under which an employee of the company is given a right to purchase a specified number of its shares at a stipulated price which is below the market price during a given period of time. Only those employees are given this right who fulfill the specified eligibility conditions. This scheme enables the companies to retain efficient employees with the company, reducing the employee turnover. It encourages the employees to work even better. It inculcates a sense of ownership and responsibility amongst employees. This scheme boosts morale and team efforts among employees. The employees who exercise the option may be allowed to pay the money in installments or by way of deduction from monthly salary.
(ii) The features of motivation are as follows:
(i) Four limitations of planning are as follows:
(ii) Staffing is the process which ensures that an organisation has qualified workers available at various levels of management to meet the short-term as well as long-term requirements.
The process of staffing has the following steps:
(i) When it comes to advertising spending, there are a variety of viewpoints. It is considered a social waste because it increases manufacturing costs, lowers social values, and expands consumer requirements and desires. On the other hand, it is considered as advantageous because it aids in raising sales and earnings.
Points arguing that advertising is a waste of money for a business:
Points arguing that advertising is a waste of money for a business:
(ii) The Consumer Protection Act provides six rights to consumers. They are as follows:
(i) Chemex company depends upon external sources of recruitment specifically on placement agencies to look for skilled and qualified candidates.
(ii) The company should conduct intelligence test to determine their power of memory and reasoning abilities and their decision-making capabilities.
(iii) Some of the commonly used training programmes are listed below:
(iv) The selected candidates will be given off-the-job training or specifically vestibule training by the company.
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