Oswal 36 Sample Question Papers ISC Class 12 Physical Education Solutions
(i) breathing techniques
(ii) live most and serve best
(iv) Sports Managers
(v) Physical education
(vi) (b) Prevent
(vii) (a) Inflammation
(viii) (d) Fixture
(ix) (c) Speech language therapy
(x) (a) Statement 1 is true and Statement 2 is false.
(xi) The drinking of alcohol is invariably associated with social crimes and the dissolution of moral and cultural inhibitions. Violence and other corrupt practices in the community are often directly or indirectly due to the consumption of alcohol. The intake of alcohol increases the rate of industrial accidents and decreases production. Traffic accidents often take place due to drunken drivers. Illegal activities like the production and selling of illicit liquor increase anti-social activities.
(xii) The side effects of stimulants are:
- Loss of appetite
- Loss of sleep (insomnia)
- Reduction of fatigue resulting in exhaustion
- Hallucinations (psychosis)
(xiii) Netaji Subhas National Institute of Sports.
(xiv) Physical education provides a platform to act across the barriers of national boundaries. National events provide an opportunity of personal interaction between the sports persons of different states and bring them together and closer to share their experience.
(xv) There are different careers in sports and games. An individual who plays sports and games can become a professional player playing for a country or club, sports and games trainer, sports and games lecturer in college, sports and games teacher in school, sports and games book writer, personal fitness trainer, sports and games commentator, etc., and thus, can earn his livelihood. Through sports quota, an individual can join the Army, Air Force, Navy, and other Paramilitary forces.
A bone fracture is a medical condition where the continuity of the bone is broken. A crack or break in a bone is called a fracture. The application of force to a joint or bone may give rise to bone injury either at the point of impact or some distance away. It is common in the field of sports.
Types of fractures are:
There are many kinds of fractures like simple, compound, multiple, greenstick, spiral, comminuted and impacted fracture.
- Simple Fracture: A simple fracture shows no break in the skin and no wound. A bone breaks, but the skin over it does not.
- Compound Fracture: In a compound fracture, both the bone and skin break and there is the danger of infection.
- Linear Fracture: Breakage running parallel with the long axis of the bone.
- Multiple Fractures: Multiple fractures mean more than one fracture in a bone.
- Transverse Fracture: Transverse fracture has a horizontal fracture line.
- Oblique Fracture: An oblique (or diagonal) fracture.
- Comminuted Fracture: When this type of fracture occurs, the bone shatters into three or more pieces.
- Greenstick Fracture: In a Greenstick fracture the break occurs only partially through the bone.
- Spiral Fracture: A spiral fracture results when a bone is broken by a twisting force.
- Complicated Fracture: A complicated fracture is when bone or bones which have been broken causes damage to other organs or structures, such as the lungs, kidneys, major blood vessels, spleen or liver.
- Impacted Fracture: When broken ends of both the bones are driven into each other.
(i) Scope of Rehabilitation is very vast. It involves disciplines such as physical medicine or physiotherapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, audiology, psychology, education, social work,vocational guidance and placement services. The experts have identified the following areas of concern in rehabilitation:
- Medical rehabilitation– The restoration of function: Medical rehabilitation is the process targeted to promote and facilitate the recovery from physical damage, psychological and mental disorders and clinical disease. The history of medical rehabilitation is closely linked to the history of disability. Medical rehabilitation is the process targeted to promote and facilitate the recovery from physical damage, psychological, mental disorders and clinical disease.
- Vocational rehabilitation-restoration of the capacity to earn a livelihood: The term vocational rehabilitation means that part of the continuous and coordinated process of rehabilitation which involves the provision of those vocational services, e.g., vocational guidance, vocational training, selective placement, designed to enable a disabled person to secure and retain suitable employment.
(ii) The basic causes for sports injuries are:
- Sudden Movement: Often sudden impact or an awkward movement results in sprains and sometimes more serious injuries. Sudden injuries are accidental but are less likely to occur if one is fit, knows the skills of the sport, wears the correct footwear, uses good equipment and exercises in a sensible way (for example, not running in the dark, on rough ground).
- Environment (Hot, Cold, Wet and Dry): Excessively hot or cold weather can negatively affect a player’s coordination, which can lead to an increased risk of injury as well as to medical conditions
such as hyperthermia or hypothermia. Hypothermia refers to the condition when the body’s temperature starts to fall, blood is restricted to the vital organs. If the condition persists, widespread tissue damage can occur.
- Lack of Preparation (Warm Up, Cool Down): Warm-up programs help to prepare athletes for sport both physically and mentally. They help to reduce injuries as well as to improve sporting performance.
A properly designed warm-up is essential for both training sessions and competition, although the type of warm-up program used might be very different. Warm-up and training programs will also vary depending on the specific sport as well as on factors such as the age and skill level of the
(i) The main advantages and disadvantages of the knock-out tournaments are:
Advantages of knock-out tournaments:
- There is economy of expenditure.
- The tournament can be finished in a short period of time.
- Minimum numbers of officials are required.
- Helpful in enhancing standard of sports.
- The competition is keen and intense because of the fear of elimination of a team from the tournament, the moment it is defeated.
Disadvantages of knock-out tournaments:
- There are many chances of elimination of good teams in preliminary rounds.
- There are many chances of weak teams to enter in the final round.
- Spectators may not have enough interest in the final round.
- A winner of a particular round may have to wait to meet the winner of another match of the same round or the previous round.
Other three types of tournaments:
- League or Round Robin tournament
(i) Single league tournament
(ii) Double league tournament.
- Combination tournaments
(i) Knock out-cum-knock out tournament
(ii) Knock out-cum league tournament
(iii) League-cum-league tournament
(iv) League-cum-knock-out tournament.
- Challenge tournaments
(i) Ladder tournament
(ii) Pyramid tournament.
(ii) Sports training is a scientific and systematic way of preparation of sports persons for the highest level of sports performance. Sports training is the main component and the basic form of preparing the sportsperson. It includes all the basic types of preparation of the sportsperson. Sports training is a physical, technical, moral and intellectual preparation for the performance with the help of physical exercises.
According to Matwejew: Sports training is the basic form of preparation of sportsmen.
According to Hardial Singh (1993): Sports training is a pedagogical process, based on scientific principles, aiming at preparing sportsmen for higher performances in sports competitions.
Importance of sports training:
- Personality development: Due to sports training the personality of a sports person develops through participation in games and sports.
- Physical fitness development: Due to sports training the physical fitness of a sports person develops through participation in different activities, exercises or sports and games.
- Skill or technique development: Due to sports training the skill or technique of a sports person develops.
- Tactical development: Tactical training is designed to improve various strategies and is based upon analysis of the tactics of opponents. Specific training in sports helps the sports persons to make the best use of their abilities and techniques so that the chances of success in competition are increased.
- Mental training: Improvement of mental abilities is critical for high level performance in any sport.
The training aims at development of positive attitude towards sports and competition, dedication and devotion towards particular sport or event, sincerity and honesty, self-confidence and optimum
level of aspiration.
Health education is that phase of life experience in which a person educates himself about health, its development and maintenance and its holistic form. Principles of health education are derived from scientific facts human insights and understanding, learned by observation, instruction and practices at home, at school and public places.
- Realising Health Effort worth: No health effort will come to any fruition unless people come to realise the worth of that effort and give it whole-hearted support. We often do things better whose worth we know well and in which we get interested. Only well motivated people whole-heartedly support health effort.
- Need-based Health Effort: People hardly do things unless there is a felt-need within them to do so.
A need-based health education shall have ready acceptance and voluntary following. All may not be conscious and serious about their health problems and needs, nor do all have access to remedial measures. It is necessary to draw people’s attention to their health problems and health needs and to wake them up work for it.
- Form known to unknown: Health education proceed from known to unknown, concrete to abstract and simple to complex. Start with what people already know and gradually introduce them to what they ought to know. This will make health education a systematic process, allowing people to assimilate significant ideas about health and strategies to maintain it. Every single idea should be within the intellectual grasp of the people.
- Communication media use: We have risen much higher from the level of bookish way of learning things. A great variety of communication media, which are both quick and effective in proliferating ideas and disseminating knowledge, are at our disposal. Therefore, use communication media especially language that best suits people. Let simple principles of health science be explained in a simple, understandable and easy-to-grasp language for the benefit of all sundry. Illustrated material such as charts, posters, pamphlets, etc., is more effective than a simple narrative style.
A sports injury is any form of stress placed upon the body of an athlete during an athletic activity that prevents the body from functioning to the full and which requires a period of recovery to allow the body to heal. It usually affects musculoskeletal system bones, muscles, tendons, and cartilage and often results in pain, swelling, tenderness and the inability to use, or place weight on the affected area.
(i) (a) Responsibilities of the captain are:
- The only official responsibility of a captain specified by the Laws of the Game is to participate in the coin toss prior to kick-off (for choice of ends) and prior to a penalty shootout. Contrary to what is sometimes claimed, captains have no special authority under the Laws to challenge a decision by the referee. However, referees may talk to the captain of a side about the side’s general behaviour when necessary.
- In soccer, a captain is the player who is supposed to act as the leader of the team, acting as mediator between his team-mates, the manager and the referee.
- At an award giving ceremony after a fixture like a cup competition final, the captain usually leads the team up to collect their medals. Any trophy won by a team will be received by the captain who will also be the first one to hoist it.
- The captain generally provides a rallying point for the team: if morale is low, it is the captain who will be looked upon to boost their team’s spirits.
- In the absence of the captain, these roles are performed by the vice-captain (assistant captain).
(b) The aim of a long pass is to switch the play or find a teammate in space. A long pass is generally more attacking than a short pass, but this can depend on where you are on the field. If you want to drive your pass, approach the ball at a 30-degree angle so there is room to swing your kicking leg through. Use your arms to balance, position your non-kicking foot close to the side of the ball, and keep your eyes on the ball. If you want to keep the ball low you must keep the knee of your kicking foot over the ball and not lean back as you strike the centre of the ball with your laces, following through. If you want increased power and height, hit the ball near the bottom, lean back further and follow through the ball more. Ideally you do not want the ball to bounce before it reaches a teammate as a bouncing ball is harder to control and can hold up an attack.
- The length of the temporary dismissal is the same for all offences.
- The length of the temporary dismissal should be between 10–15% of the total playing time (e.g. 10 minutes in a 90-minute match; 8 minutes in an 80-minute match).
- The temporary dismissal period begins when play restarts after the player has left the field of play.
- The referee should include in the temporary dismissal period any time ‘lost’ for a stoppage for which ‘additional time’ will be allowed at the end of the half (e.g. substitution, injury etc.).
- Competitions must decide who will help the referee time the dismissal period – it could be the responsibility of a delegate, 4th official or neutral assistant referee; conversely it could be a team official.
- Once the temporary dismissal period has been completed, the player can return from the touchline with the referee’s permission, which can be given while the ball is in play.
(ii) (a) The Grounds men are responsible for maintaining equipment and materials, and for ensuring adequate stock levels of consumables. They will ensure the appearance of trees, shrubs, flowers and lawns, and keep the grounds free from harmful insects and plant diseases. The Head Grounds man will be responsible for the delivery of pitch maintenance and improvement at both sites to the highest standards.
Besides managing a team of staff to deliver the highest quality playing surfaces and work flexibly due to the first team commitments, the roles and responsibilities will include but not be limited to:
- Presentation of all pitches to the highest standard for matches and training schedules.
- Carrying out general grounds duties such as cutting the grass, watering the pitch, marking the pitch and match preparations.
- Creation of work and fertilizer programmes to ensure the pitches are maintained to the highest possible standard.
- Establishing and managing budgets for all aspects of work undertaken and ensuring that those budgets are adhered to.
- Liaising with suppliers to order products and services where required.
- Ensure machinery is maintained and serviced to an acceptable standard.
- Managing and up-skilling staff to ensure that they are capable of carrying out their duties in an efficient manner and to an acceptable standard.
- Providing support and training to apprentices and under-skilled staff.
- Maintaining and creating relationships with key suppliers.
- Be available for the required training as prescribed by the football club.
(b) It refers to a situation in which the referee calls “play on” despite a foul-because the team that would be given a free kick already has the advantage of a scoring or passing opportunity.
Advantage is essentially letting play continue after a foul for which play would be stopped for a free kick but the team which was fouled is in a better position to score than if they had a free kick. It is usually given when a team that has been fouled retains possession in the attacking third of the field.
Advantage in Football:
The advantage rule in football is considered unique. If a referee sees that there was an obvious foul played, it is up to him whether he should call it out or not. If he thinks that by calling out a foul can affect the position of the team, he has the option not to call the foul.
An example of when an advantage works is a goalkeeper attempting to stop a player from the
opposing team from taking the shot. However, before he can proceed to wipe out the opponent, the player was able to make a weak shot. But, after the collision, even if the goalkeeper proceeds to take out its opponent, the ball manages to go into the goal.
In this situation, a goalkeeper commits foul before the other player scores a goal. If the referee was to stop the play moments before the goalkeeper wiped out the striker, he would have negated the goal made by the opposing team. It means that if the referee made the call, the result would benefit the fouling team as the goal is not considered a score. However, if the foul committed involves serious foul play, the advantage rule is not applied.
(iii) (a) Corner kick: A corner kick is awarded to the opposing team when a player kicks the ball over his own goal line. The corner is taken from within the quarter circle of the corner nearest to the spot
where the ball went out of the field of play. For a corner kick, all opposing players must be at least 10 yards from the ball.
(b) Throw-in: A team is awarded a throw-in when the ball goes over the side line, last touched by an opponent. A player throws the ball in over his/her head, with both feet on the ground at the moment of release. At least part of each foot must be on or behind the side-line. If the throw-in is done incorrectly, the opposing team is awarded a throw-in.
(i) (a) The captain places fielders in positions designed to do two things:
- Get batsmen out by being in the right places to take catches.
- Prevent runs being scored.
Since the wickets are at a premium, there will almost always be several fielders placed in positions whose primary purpose is to take catches. This includes fielders in the slips, gully, silly point, silly midoff, silly mid-on, short leg, and leg slip. These are attacking fielders. More dispersed fielding positions in the infield are designed to prevent runs, while several are also in suitable positions to take an occasional catch. Example for positions of this type include point, cover, mid-off, mid-on, midwicket and square leg. Positions in the outfield are mostly used solely to prevent runs. These positions include third man, deep point, deep cover, and long off, long on, deep midwicket, deep square leg, and fine leg. These are defensive fielders. Sometimes a fielder will be placed in the outfield specifically for a batsman who is known to hit the ball high into the outfield in a certain direction. Long off, long on, and deep midwicket are the most used outfield positions for this purpose. Deep midwicket and deep square leg in particular can be used to attack the batsman if he is known to hook short balls. With fielders in the outfield, the bowler can tempt the batsman with repeated bouncers, challenging him to try to hook the ball clear of the fielders. Depending on the total configuration of the field, it can be described as either an attacking field (designed to take wickets) or defensive field (designed to prevent runs). The entire field setting also depends on the style of the bowler and what bowling tactics the captain tells his bowlers to perform.
(b) The Duckworth-Lewis-Stern method (DLS) is a mathematical formulation designed to calculate the target score for the team batting second in a limited over’s cricket match interrupted by weather or other circumstances. The method was devised by two English statisticians, Frank Duckworth and Tony Lewis and was formerly known as the Duckworth-Lewis method (D/L). It was introduced in 1997, and adopted officially by the ICC in 1999.
(c) The International Cricket Council granted its permission allowing South Africa and Zimbabwe to play the first-ever four-day Test Match in Port Elizabethton December 26, 2017. It is the first Test match since 1972-73 to be scheduled for four days. Until then, time period of Test matches were varied. It was in the range of three to six days and on a number of occasions it was “timeless”, played over an unlimited number of days until a result was achieved. In 4 day test match there are numerous variations from standard Test playing conditions.
- Time period for 4 day test match will be scheduled for six and a half hours each day, that is half an hour more than in five-day test matches.
- 98 overs will be bowled in a day instead of 90 overs. An extra half hour can be added in order to complete the overs.
- Duration of the first two sessions of play will be 2 hours 15 minutes each, instead of 2 hours.
- There will be a 20-minute tea break instead of a lunch break after the first session and a 40 minute dinner break after the second session.
- There is no provision for time lost to be carried over to succeeding days.
- The follow-on can be enforced with a lead of 150 runs, instead of 200 runs in five-day games.
(ii) (a) In cricket, the bowler decides what type of ball to bowl, giving no indication to the wicket-keeper. The bowling of the six balls in an over involves a tactical decision by the bowler on what each of the six balls is designed to achieve. Each ball is bowled in the context of the balls around it, rather than in isolation. The sequence is designed to set up the batsman and then try to get him out. If the batsman is playing shots at balls pitched outside off the stump, the bowler may try pushing the ball wider, tempting the batsman to play farther from his body. This increases the chances of getting an edge from either side of the bat, resulting in the possibilities of being caught by the wicketkeeper or slips, or playing on. Generally, the primary goal of a fast bowler is not to aim at the batsman’s wicket in an attempt to hit it, because this provokes an obvious response from the batsman; he must defend the wicket. Spin bowlers adopt similar sorts of tactics to fast bowlers, but with a different variety of balls in their arsenal. Spin bowlers will have a stock ball that makes up most of their deliveries. For an off spinner this is usually the off break, for a leg spinner it is usually the leg break. They will bowl this ball repeatedly, with slight variations in flight, line, and length, to get the batsman into a rhythm, and then break it up with a variation such as an arm ball for an off spinner, or a googly or flipper for a leg spinner. If the batsman does not pick the variation, the different spin and bounce of the ball can cause him to miss it entirely, possibly getting him out bowled or LBW, or to hit it with the edge of the bat and produce a catch for close fielders such as silly mid-off or short leg.
(b) Duties of the third umpire are:
- Before the commencement of the game
(a) To check whether the technical instrument used for checking and confirming the decision is working properly.
(b) Learn the art of operating the technical equipment before the match.
(c) Shall be present at the ground at least two hours before the scheduled start of the first day’s play, and at least 1.5 hours before the scheduled start of play.
- During the commencement of the game
(a) If an on-field umpire is not sure of a decision then he calls for the assistance of the third umpire and the third umpire views a replay, in slow motion if necessary, until he either reaches a decision or decides that he cannot make a clear decision. He signals the result to the on-field umpire, who must then abide by it.
(b) If the equipment fails, the replay umpire signals no decision. The replay umpire cannot be used for any decisions other than run outs and stumping’s.
3. After the commencement of the game
(a) Review the match in detail with the other umpires.
(b) If the umpires agree, ask for opinions on areas they think they could improve on.
(c) Does not discuss the colleague’s performance in his/her absence.
(d) Never to get into long-winded discussions about decisions.
(iii) (a) Leg bye: A leg bye is a run scored by the batting team if the batsman has not hit the ball with their bat, but the ball has hit the batsman’s body or protective gear. If the ball deflects off the batsman’s body they can attempt to score runs in a similar manner as if they had hit the ball. The numbers of runs scored are scored as leg byes; they are added to the team’s total, but not to the number of runs scored by the batsman or to the runs conceded by the bowler. Umpires signal a leg-bye by touching a raised knee or leg.
(b) Leg Before Wicket (LBW): When a delivered ball strikes the batsman’s leg, pad or body, and the umpire judges that the ball would otherwise have struck the stumps. Leg before wicket is one of the ways in which a batsman can be dismissed in the sport of cricket. Following an appeal by the fielding side, the umpire may rule a batsman out LBW if the ball would have struck the wicket, but was instead intercepted by any part of the batsman’s body (except the hand holding the bat). The umpire’s decision will depend on a number of criteria, including where the ball pitched, whether the ball hit in line with the wickets, and whether the batsman was attempting to hit the ball.
(i) (a) The number one and best defensive hockey strategy is to have a good goalkeeper . Beyond that there are a number of other good tactics, teams and players can take to keep the other team from scoring. All of the players on the defensive hockey team are responsible for defence. Defenders need to stay between the player with the puck and goal. They can block shots with their hockey sticks or bodies.
Defencemen try not to let any goal shots, through, to the goaltender if they can help it.
All hockey teams take advantage of the check for defence. Forwards do a lot of fore-checking, which is checking players in the other hockey team’s zone. These strategies help slow down the offense and give the defensemen a change to come in and take the puck. Defences use the offside rule and icing rules to their advantage, whenever possible. Some hockey defensive strategies have become so stifling that the rules have been changed to keep the game exciting and to keep offenses from scoring goals. One example of this is the trap defence used by the New Jersey Devils in 1995 to win the Stanley Cup Championship.
(b) The five International tournaments of Hockey are:
- Olympic games
- World Championship
- Commonwealth games
- Men’s World Cup
- Women’s World Cup
(c) The basic compulsory equipment used by Hockey players are:
Equipments used by regular ground player are:
- Proper kit
- Hockey shoes
- Long stocking
- Shin guards
- Hockey stick
Equipments used by goal keeper are:
- Face guard
- Neck guard
- Chest guard
(ii) (a) Rules applicable for a penalty corner are:
- The ball is placed on the back-line inside the circle, at least 10 metres from the goal-post on whichever side of the goal the attacking team prefers.
- An attacker pushes or hits the ball without intentionally raising it.
- The attacker taking the push or hit from the back-line must have at least one foot outside the field.
- The other attackers must be on the field, outside the circle with sticks, hands and feet not touching the ground inside the circle.
- No defender or attacker otherthan the attacker taking the push or hit from the back-line, is permitted to be within 5 metres of the ball, when the push or hit is taken.
- Not more than five defenders, including the goalkeeper, must be positioned behind the back-line with their sticks, hands and feet not touching the ground inside the field.
- Within the period from the award of a penalty corner, until after it has been completed, substitution is not permitted; during this period substitution is only permitted for injury or suspension of the
- Players must not change their stick between the award and completion of a penalty corner or penalty stroke unless it no longer meets the stick specification.
(b) A team may change between these options by making a substitution.
- Substitution is permitted at any time except within the period of the award of a penalty corner until after it has been completed during this period substitution is only permitted for injury or suspension of the defending goalkeeper or defending player with goalkeeping privileges.
- There is no limit to the number of players who are permitted to be substituted at the same time or to the number of times any player is permitted to substitute or be substituted.
- Substitution of a player is permitted only after that player has left the field.
- Substitutions are not permitted for suspended players during their suspension.
- After completing a suspension, a player is permitted to be substituted without first returning to the field.
- Field players must leave or enter the field for substitution purposes within 3 metres of the centreline on a side of the field agreed with the umpires.
- Goalkeepers are permitted to leave or enter the field for substitution near the goal they are defending.
- Field players who leave the field for injury treatment, refreshment, to change equipment or for some reason other than substitution are only permitted to re-enter between the 23 metre areas on the side of the pitch used for substitution.
(iii) (a) Flick: This technique is used for penalty strokes. It is similar to push but the ball is lifted at a low height. The flick is an important movement in the field of hockey, in which player shoots or flicks the ball by elevating it with their stick. It is the move that a player uses to shoot penalties, but it is also very useful in normal game play. The way to learn how flick is, to first make sure that player’s body is positioned properly, and then performs the right movements with his body and stick to elevate the
ball in certain direction.
(b) Long corner: It is awarded to the attacking team after the ball goes over the end line (not between the goal post) from the stick of the defender. The ball is placed five yard away from the side line over the end line.
(i) (a) Blocking is an illegal personal contact which impedes the progress of opponent player with or without the ball. Blocking occurs when a defensive player legally deflects a field goal attempt from an offensive player to prevent a score. The defender is not allowed to make contact with the offensive player’s hand (unless the defender is also in contact with the ball) or a foul is called whereas Charging is a personal contact with or without ball, by pushing, illegal guarding the opponent. It is preventing defense from rear of players or back side of player. A charge, or player control foul, occurs when a dribbler charges into a defender who has already established his position.
(b) Technical equipments used by the table officials are :
- Game clock and stop watch.
- Score sheet.
- Whistle-operated stop clock systems.
- 24 second device.
- Team foul markers. (20 cm wide and 35 cm high) Team foul indicator.
(c) Five Second Rule: A closely guarded player holding the ball should pass, roll, bounce or shoot the ball within five seconds. Failure to do so is a violation. In basketball, the five-second rule, or five second violation, is a rule that helps promote continuous play.
(ii) (a) Duties of the scorer are :
- The scorer shall keep a record of the names and number of players who are to start the game and of all substitutes who enter the game.
- The scorer shall keep a chronological running summary of the points scored, he shall record the He shall record the timeouts charged to each team, and shall notify the coach through an official
when he has taken a second timeout in each half, or has no more time-out (s) left in a half or extra period.field goals made and free throws made or missed.
- He shall record the timeouts charged to each team, and shall notify the coach through an official when he has taken a second timeout in each half, or has no more time-out (s) left in a half or extra period.
- He shall also indicate the number of fouls committed by each player by raising, in a manner visible to both coaches, and by using the numbered markers provided.
- Effect substitutions.
- Sound his signal only when the ball is dead and before the ball becomes live again. The sound of his signal does not stop the game clock or the game nor cause the ball to become dead.
(b) Offensive basketball strategies may include plays designed to a style of play. Teams tend to play an uptempo, fast break game,or they want to slow the game down and get into their half-court offence. Teams with athletic and fast players may want to play a fast paced game, where they can take advantage of their speed in the open court. Other teams may feel they can excel in a half-court game taking advantage of their designed plays, outside shooting, or post up play. The key to any good offensive strategy is passing. The ball can be passed faster and more effectively, than it can be dribbled. By passing the ball around quickly, an offensive basketball team can cause the defensive team to move and make adjustments. Enough good passes and eventually an offensive player will get a good open shot. One of the staples to any basketball offensive game is the pick-and-roll. This is when one offensive player stands in the way of a player defending another offensive player who has the ball. The player with the ball will then start to make a move. At the same time the player setting the pick will roll to the basket. The defenders now have to make a choice on whom to cover. They can often get confused and, in the confusion, either the player with the ball will have an open shot, or the player setting the pick will be wide open for an easy layup.
(iii) (a) Time-out: One time out is allowed in the first, second and third periods and two time-outs in fourth period. Time out last for one full minute in basketball. In sports, a time-out or time-out is a halt in the play. This allows the coaches of either team to communicate with the team, example, to determine strategy or inspire morale, as well as to stop the game clock.
(b) Pivot: A player holding the ball is allowed to step once or more than once in any direction with the same foot, while the other foot, which is called the pivot foot, is kept in contact with the ground during this action.
|1.||It is a powerful attack which is executed by the spiker who has an excellent sense of balance in the air and can perceive and anticipate the actions and positions of the opposing team members. Contact with the ball takes place above the net. A player specialized in smash is known as spiker.||Serve is the act of putting the ball in play by a player. It sounds simple, but actually it describes one of the most important plays in the game of volleyball.|
|2.||After lifting the ball when it comes down near the net and the ball is hit powerfully with open hand.||The ball is held in the left hand to the front and right side of the body so that it will be directly in line with the right hand.|
|3.||There are many types of smashing i.e., one-man spike, two men spike or complex spike.||The service can be done by the following methods :
(i) Underhand service : Mostly beginners use this technique. By taking one foot ahead, the ball is hit by the heel of the hand.
(ii) Round arm service : The server stands behind the sideways with one foot ahead. The hitting arm is given rotation as blowing action of cricket. In this service, the ball is hit hard with open palm.
(b) Five international tournaments of volleyball are:
- World Volleyball Championship.
- Volleyball World Cup.
- Olympic Volleyball Championship.
- Asian Volleyball Championship.
- Commonwealth Volleyball Championship.
(c) Five types of game delay are:
- Delaying a substitution.
- Prolonging other interruptions, after having been instructed to resume the game.
- Requesting an illegal substitution.
- Repeating an improper request.
- Delaying the game by a team member.
(ii) (a) The specifications of the volleyball net are:
- Height of the Net: The height of the net shall be measured from the centre of the playing court with a measuring rod. The two ends of the net (over the side-lines) must be at the same height from the playing surface and may not exceed the regulation height by more than 2 cm.
- Side Bands: Two white side bands are fastened vertically to the net and placed directly above each side-line. Both side bands shall be considered as a part of the net.
(b) The players not in play should either sit on their team bench or be in their warm-up area. The coach and other team members sit on the bench, but may temporarily leave it. For FIVB, World and Official competitions for seniors: up to 14 players may be recorded on the score sheet and allowed to play in a match.
- The maximum five staff members on the bench (including the coach) are chosen by the coach himself/ herself, but must be listed on the score sheet, and be registered on the O-2(bis).
- The Team Manager or Team Journalist may not sit on or behind the bench in the Control Area.
- Any Medical doctor or team therapist used in FIVB, World and Official Competitions must be part of the official Delegation and accredited beforehand by the FIVB. However, for FIVB, World and Official Competitions for seniors, if they are not included as members on the team bench, they must sit against the delimitation fence, inside the Competition- Control Area and may only intervene if invited by the referees to deal with an emergency to the players. The team therapist (even if not on the bench) may assist with the warm up until the start of the official net warm up session.
(iii) (a) Round arm service: The server stands sideways with one foot ahead. The hitting arm is given rotation as blowing action of cricket. In this service ball is hit hard with open palm.
(b) Tennis service: The server can stand anywhere behind the 9 meter service line. The player executes it, as a spike behind the service line. If it is hit well, the serve is a powerful offensive skill. Other variations of tennis serve are top spin, reverse spin or floating serve.
(i) (a) The rarer multiple reasons under which a player, while serving during a game of tennis may make foot fault are:
- A foot fault takes place when the server assumes an illegal position while serving.
- Illegal release of the ball.
- If the ball before bouncing, hits any object other than the net cord, the opponents racket or body, it is a fault.
(b) The first player to reach seven points wins the tie-break and the set. But if the score reaches six points all, the winner is the first player to win two points in a row. The player whose turn it was to serve in the set serves the first point of the tiebreak. This is sometimes played instead of third set. A match tiebreak is played like a regular tie-break but the winner must win ten points instead of seven. The tiebreaker consists of an odd number of points with two point margin required. But if the score reaches six points all, the winner is the first player to win two points in a row. The player whose turn it was
to serve in the set serves the first point of the tie-break.
(c) Fundamental skills of tennis are given below:
- Ground stroke
(ii) (a) Rules and regulations of a game in tennis are:
- A match must start with a coin toss to decide who serves first and which side he would like to serve from.
- After each point, the server will alternate either side on the baseline.
- The server must hit his serve from behind their baseline.
- If the first serve is called out, the server may take advantage of a second serve. If the second serve fails then a ‘double fault’ is called and the point is lost.
- If the server hits the net and the ball travels over and into the service area, then a ‘let’ is called and the server may take the serve again without penalty.
- To receive a serve, the player is allowed to stand where he wishes, but he must allow the ball to bounce once first.
- If a player touches the net, distracts the opponent or impedes him in any way, the umpire will award the point to the opponent.
- Throughout a game, the ball is allowed to hit the lines to be awarded in. Anything outside of the lines, and the ball is out.
- In competitive games, new tennis balls are introduced after the first seven games and after every nine games after that.
(b) Match Tie in the game of tennis:
- Match Tie-Break (7 Points): When the score in a match is one set all, or two sets all in best of five sets matches, one tie- break game shall be played to decide the match. This tie-break game replaces the deciding final set. The player or team who first wins seven points shall win this match tie-break and the match provided there is a margin of two points over the opponent(s).
- Match Tie-Break (10 Points): When the score in a match is one set all, or two sets all in best of fivesets matches, one tie-break game shall be played to decide the match. This tie-break game replaces the deciding final set. The player or team who first wins ten points shall win this match
tie-break, and the match, provided there is a margin of two points over the opponent(s).
(iii) (a) Drop: A drop shot is a shot in some racquet sports in which the ball (or birdie) is hit relatively softly, and lands just over and close to the net. A good drop shot requires great touch. The ball should bounce low and near the net, sometimes with underspin (or backspin).
(b) Drive: Hit with a long forward swing, usually from farther back in the court. All drives (forehand or backhand) should be made with a stiff, locked wrist. There is no wrist movement in a true drive. Top spin is imparted by the arm, not the wrist.
(i) (a) The Sudirman Cup is the world mixed team badminton championship which takes place every two years. There are five matches in every Sudirman Cup tie which consists of men and women’s singles, men and women’s doubles, and mixed doubles. The cup is named after Dick Sudirman, a former Indonesian badminton player and the founder of the Badminton Association of Indonesia (PBSI). The first Sudirman Cup tournament took place in Istora Senayan, Jakarta, Indonesia on 24-29 May 1989. There is no prize money in Sudirman Cup; players play for their respective countries to earn BWF world ranking points and national prestige.
(b) The badminton backhand stroke is many people’ primary weakness. They tend to get the technique for this stroke wrong. It is important to keep in mind that the backhand stroke for badminton is not like a badminton or squash backhand. The correct technique to perform a badminton backhand stroke is more complicated than a badminton backhand.
(c) The basic idea of net play is to force the opponent to the front of the court. This is usually done by hitting a drop shot (if one is at the back of the court) or hit a spinning net shot (if one is at the front of the court). Play along the net with the opponent until the opponent decides to lift the shuttle high up.
In badminton net, play is mainly used to force the opponent to lift the shuttle high in the air, so that one can execute a strong attacking shot. The competition is based on who gives up playing along the net and lifts the shuttle.
(ii) (a) In Badminton, a yellow card can be presented to a single player or even to a team which is usually a doubles pair. This is done when a player or players breach the basic Badminton laws. The yellow card is only given out when the match is in progress. One of the first things that an umpire can do when a
player misbehaves is to issue a verbal warning. Verbal warnings are most popular in Badminton and yellow cards are typically used if an umpire feels that verbal warnings just are not being effective. If a player is guilty of misconduct, the umpire will announce a warning. If the offenses continue, the umpire will ask the player to come over to their area to have a word. It is common to hear the umpire saying things like “do not delay the game” or “obstruction” when a player is misbehaving in that way. Usually, if the player continues to offend and the umpire is not happy, umpire may warn that a yellow card is possible by gesturing to the cards.
Thereafter, if the umpire is not happy with the player’s on-court behaviour, the umpire will hold
up the yellow card and announce the reason for it. The consequence of a yellow card is often a fine (cash), but if a player gets 2 yellow cards, the next is a red card which results in the opposing team getting a point.
(b) Four faults a player might commit during the game are:
- When a player touches the net or its supports with racket or in person.
- When a player invades an opponent’s court under the net with racket.
- A player deliberately distracts an opponent by action such as shouting.
- If the shuttle is hit by a player and the player’s partner successively.
(iii) (a) Net kill: Net kills area shots taken from the forecourt. It travel down steeply towards the opponent side. Usually, the net kills are used to counter weak net shots from the opponent.
(b) Hairpin net shot: A shot made from below and very close to the net and causing the shuttle to rise, just clear the net, then drop sharply down the other side so that the flight of the shuttlecock resembles the shape of a hairpin.
(i) (a) A swimming relay of four swimmers usually follows this strategy: second-fastest, third- fastest, slowest, then fastest (anchor). However, it is not uncommon to see either the slowest swimmer racing in the second slot (creating an order of second-fastest, slowest, third-fastest, and then fastest), or an order from slowest to fastest (an order of slowest, third-fastest, second-fastest, fastest). Race strategy can be as complex or as simple as needed. For some the simple “go out and swim fast!” might work, but for others, every detail must be accounted for. Finding the right race strategy for the race is something that should be talked about with the coach and not decided independently. Strategies are fluid and ever changing; never set in stone. No matter what is the level of the swimmer, there will always be strategic tweaks and modifications which can lead to steady improvement.
(b) In a distance event, the swimmer may consistently hold the same pace per 50, evenly splitting every 50. There are also swimmers who exactly even split the 1000 freestyle, not missing a beat on any 100.
A swimmer who evenly splits an event may need some more warming up prior to racing.
(c) When all swimmers are stationary, the starter shall give the starting signal, and any swimmer starting, before the starting signal is given, shall be disqualified, if the Referee independently observes and confirms the Starter’s observation. The swimmer leaves the set or stationary position prior to the starting signal. The starting signal is then given. The race proceeds and, assuming the Starter observed the early start and the Deck Referee independently observes and confirms the Starter’s observation, the offending swimmer is disqualified at the conclusion of the race. This is known as false start.
(ii) (a) From the beginning of the first arm stroke, after the start and each turn, the body shall be kept on the breast. It is not permitted to roll onto the back at any time, except at the turn, after the touch of the wall, where it is permissible to turn in any manner, as long as the body is on the breast when leaving the wall. Both arms shall be brought forward simultaneously over the water, and brought backward simultaneously under the water throughout the race. All up and down movements of the legs must be simultaneous. The legs or the feet need not be on the same level, but they shall not alternate in
relation to each other. A breaststroke kicking movement is not permitted. At each turn, and at the finish of the race, the touch shall be made with both hands separated and simultaneously, at, above, or below the water surface. At the start and at turns, a swimmer is permitted one or more leg kicks and one arm pull under the water, which must bring him to the surface. It shall be permissible for a swimmer to be completely submerged for a distance of not more than 15 metres after the start, and after each turn. By that point, the head must have broken the surface. The swimmer must remain on the surface, until the next turn or finish.
(b) The umpire will disqualify the offender when he tries to obstruct the path of another swimmer by swimming into his/ her lane. There shall be four swimmers on each relay team.
- Failing to touch the wall on the turn in a multi-lap race.
- Pulling on the lane line to gain advantage.
- Pushing off the bottom to continue swimming.
- Two false starts: Swimmers may not move from his/her starting position before the starting horn sounds.
- (iii) (a) Life guards: Life Guards are necessary. Even the guards know that their services are not likely to be required. Though no athlete has ever died in an Olympic pool, some aquatics events can be
dangerous: Divers can smack the water, synchronised swimmers have gotten sports concussions, and water polo is a rugged contact sport. An athlete also runs the risk of heart attacks, debilitating cramps, and crashing into the pool walls headfirst. It is not a particularly stimulating job but at least they have got a great seat to watch all the Olympic actions unfold.
(b) Photo Finish: A photo finish occurs in a sporting race when multiple competitors cross the finishing line at nearly the same time. As the naked eye may not be able to determine which of the competitors crossed the line first, a photo or video taken at the finish line may be used for a more accurate check.
Photo finishes make it less likely that officials will declare a race, a dead heat. Finish line photos are still used in nearly every modern racing sport. Although some sports use electronic equipment to track the racers during a race, a photo is considered the most important evidence in selecting the winner.
(i) (a) It is one such way to improve the activity of the body. The following steps should be used to carry out the process.
- Be in a comfortable sitting or standing position. If seated, have the feet planted on the ground.
- Put one hand on the stomach and one hand on the upper chest.
- Close the eyes if comfortable with that, but it is fine to have them open.
- Take a slow deep breath, in through the nose, send the breath down to the stomach and try to move the hand on the stomach outwards, while minimising the movement in the chest.
- Exhale through the mouth or nose, noticing that the hand on the stomach sinks in, while emptying the air out.
- Ideally, the breath is passing down through the chest , lower into the diaphragm area.
(b) Track events are races between athletes that take place on an oval track that is normally 400 metres long.
It is divided into lanes and has a surface of asphalt, rubber or tartan. A variety of running events are held on the track which fall into three broad distance categories: sprints, middle-distance, and longdistance track events.
(c) International Association of Athletics
Federation The European Athletic Association
(ii) (a) The Indian National Open Athletics Championships is an annual outdoor track and field competition organised by the Athletics Federation of India, which serves as the national
championship for the sport in India. First held in 1961, it is one of four major national events
in track and field, alongside the annual Indian Inter State Senior Athletics Championships and
Federation Cup Senior Athletics Championships, as well as the biennial National Games of India.
The venue for the championships changes each year, and it is typically held over four days in the
period from August to October.
(b) High jump is a field event included in the track and field athletics discipline. The aim of the athletes competing in high jump event is to jump over a horizontal bar without using any other device. The horizontal bar is generally set at a pre-determined height. Since the early days of the event, athletes have been improving the jumping technique again and again. In the event, athletes have to possess good flexibility and speed. The J. approach, flared approach, and hook approach – All 3 approaches have the same curve into the jump. The only difference between them is the initial starting position.
The J approach involves the athlete running in a straight line before curving their run into the jump.
(iii) (a) 3000-metre run: This is a primary indoor event and is part of the World Indoor Championships but it is also run outdoors. The 3000 marks the start of the long distance events, as the 1500 and the mile are considered middle distance races. Runners begin on a slightly curved starting line (the curve is greater on the smaller indoor track) but do not run in lanes, so the start is mainly a competition to gain a runner’s favoured position on the track.
(b) Triple jump: The triple jump was previously known as the ‘hop, step and jump’, which describes the actions of the competitor. The athlete runs down a runway until he reaches a designated mark where the jump is measured. The first landing is done with the take-off foot. The next phase is a step, landing on the opposite foot, and is followed by the jump, into a sand-filled box, as in the long jump.
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