Oswal 36 Sample Question Papers ISC Class 12 Geography Solutions


Answer 1.


  • (ii) (a) The Brahmaputra
  • (iii) (b) Vishakhapatnam
  • (iv) (c) The Ganga
  • (v) (d) Tuticorin
  • (vi) (a) Raniganj
  • (b) Arunachal Pradesh
  • (c) Himachal Pradesh

Answer 2.

  • (i) (c) Sub-tropical zone
  • (ii) (c) Konkan plain
  • (iii) True
  • (iv) Nilgiri hills


Answer 3.

(i) (a) Rapidly increasing population has adverse effect on our environment. Since rapidly increasing population means more mouths of feed, more houses to live in and more infra-structural facilities (industries, transport, education, health, etc.).

It leads to increasing use of natural resources such as soil, water, forests, minerals and power resources, etc.

Many of the natural resources are exhaustible and nature has put limits to their utilization. Most of the mineral resources are exhaustible and there is definite limit to their exploitation.

Over exploitation of natural resources such as oil, vegetation, minerals, etc., leads to environmental degradation.

(b) (1) Growth Rate: The annual average rate of change of population size, for a given country, territory, during a specified period. It expresses the ratio between the annual increase in the population size and the total population for that year, usually multiplied by 100 to represent in percentage.

(2) Migratory Growth: This growth of population due to migration of people from one place to another.


(ii) (a) An urban agglomeration is a continuous urban spread constituting a town and its adjoining utgrowths (OGs), or two or more physically contiguous towns together with or without outgrowths of such towns. As per the 2001 Census, for Urban Agglomeration, their must be at least one statutory town and its total population should not be less than 20,000. In 1901, Kolkata (Calcutta) was the only metropolitan city in the whole of India. In 1911, Mumbai (Bombay) joined Kolkata. First census after independence in 1951 their number increased to 5 with population of Delhi, Chennai (Madras) and Hyderabad.


Compact Settlements Dispersed Settlements
1. These settlements develop generally in the fertile plains and valleys. These settlements develop in highland, desert, forests and semi-arid areas.
2. The density of population is high due to productive land. The density of population is low due to barren land.
3. The houses are compact, congested with narrow streets. The houses are dispersed and scattered over a wide area.
4. Especially agriculture is the primary occupation of the people which catalysis the secondary and tertiary activities. Fishing, cattle rearing, etc. are the main activities of the people residing in this type of settlement.
5. In compact settlements, people can help each other in agriculture. They can protect themselves against floods. They can live with security. People live isolated. Dispersed settlements have no security against many problems.
6. Compact settlements have problems of sanitation and drainage. In dispersed settlements, there are no such problems.

Answer 4.

(i) The cropping intensity refers to the number of crops raised on a field during an agricultural year. The total cropped area as percentage of the net sown area gives a measure of cropping intensity.

Thus, cropping intensity =(Total cropped area/Net sown area)×100

(ii) The main factors influencing intensity of croping are irrigation, fertilizer, early-maturing high-yielding varieties of seeds, mechanisation of agriculture and plant protection measures through the use of  insecticides, pesticides and weedicides.

(iii) Irrigation is main consumer of fresh water and more than 90 per cent of groundwater draft in India. Growing population coupled with food security has put extra pressure on water resources.

Owing to inefficient water resource management system and climate change India faces a persistent water shortage. Spatial and temporal variation of precipitation varying i.e., maximum in Cherrapunji to lowest western Rajasthan. Nearly 75% of rainfall occurs during monsoon season (June-Sept), but uneven distribution throughout the country also groundwater development is not uniform across the country.
People have identified groundwater irrigation as much reliable and independent source of irrigation. Groundwater irrigation has taken quantum jump since 1965.

Answer 5.

  • 1. Animal husbandry helps in the proper management of animals by providing proper food, shelter and protection to domestic animals.
  • 2. It provides employment to a large number of farmer and thereby increases their living standards.
  • 3. It helps in developing high yielding breeds of animals by cross breeding. This increases the production of various food products such as milk, eggs, meat, etc.
  • 4. It provide supplementing income to rural and semi-urban households especially to small and marginal farmer, hilly tribal people.

According to estimates of the Central Statistical Organisation (CSO), the value of output from livestock is about contribution to total GDP is 4.11% in 2022.

Indian livestock includes of cattle (both milch breeds and draugh breeds) buffaloes, sheep, goats, pigs, etc. These domestic animals provide us milk, meat, nides and skins and so many other products.

Answer 6.

(i) (a) Fisheries have an important place in the Indian economy as:

  • 1. It acts as a source of income and employment for many fishermen, particularly in coastal areas.
  • 2. Due to their high protien, mineral and vitamin content, fish and other aquatic creatures are significant dietary sources.
  • 3. It contributes to increased food production.
  • 4. In order to provide the nutritional requirements, it complements the availability of ment and egg.

(b) 1. Anthracite: It is the best quality of coal with highest calorific value and carries 80 to 95% carbon content. It ignites slowly with a blue flame and found in small quantities in Jammu and Kashmir.

2. Bituminous: It has a low level of moisture content with 60 to 80% of carbon content and has a high calorific value. Jharkhand, West Bengal, Odisha, Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh have deposits of Bituminous.


(ii) (a) Advantages of solar energy are:

  • 1. Clear: It is considered to be the cleanest form of energy as there is no carbon dioxide emission like in the case of fossil fuels which is one of the causes of global warming.
  • 2. Renewable: There is ample energy available on earth as long as the sun exists.
  • 3. Reliable: The energy can be stored in the batteries, so there is no unreliability.
  • 4. Reduction in utility costs.
  • 5. Free energy because it can be trapped easily.
  • Disadvantages of solar energy:
  • 1. The production is low during winters and on cloudy days.
  • 2. Installation and the initial cost of the materials are expensive.
  • 3. Space consumption is more.

(b) With increasing demand for energy and with fast depleting conventional sources of energy, the nonconventional sources of energy are gaining importance. The shift is due to the abundance, renewable nature and lesser pollution impact of non-conventional sources. It is necessary to guarantee future energy supplies. As a result, we must employ more and more renewable energy sources.

Some advantages of Non-conventional energy sources:

  • 1. They are renewable in nature.
  • 2. They produce little or no pollution as compared to traditional energy sources.
  • 3. They require little maintenance.
  • 4. They are a long-term cost-effective choice.
  • Some disadvantages of Non-convertional energy choice:
  • 1. The initial installation cost is greater.
  • 2. Energy cannot be taken 24/7, year-round, because certain days will be windier than others, and the sun will shine. Stronger on other days.
  • 3. Geographical locations might be difficult to access these energy.

Answer 7.

Mass media is a means of communication that reach large number of people in a short time, such as television, news papers, magazines and radio. In a country of vast dimensions like India, mass communication plays a vital role in creating awareness among the masses, providing information and education as well as healthy entertainment.

Significance of mass media are as follow:

  • 1. Promoting social justice, safeguarding rights of working classes, minorities and tribal communities.
  • 2. Providing adequate coverage to the diverse cultures, sports and games and youth affairs.
  • 3. Creating awareness about women’s issues and other vulnerable sections of the society.
  • 4. Paying special attention to the fields of education and spread of literacy, rural development, health family welfare and science and technology.
  • 5. Safeguarding citizen’s rights to be informed on all matters of public interest presenting a fair and balanced flow of information.
  • 6. Upholding the unity and integrity of the country and the values enshrined in the constitution.
  • 7. Expanding broadcasting facilities and promoting research and development in broadcast technology.

Answer 8.

There has been a significant increase in agricultural output and improvement in technology during the last fifty years.

  • 1. Several crops’ yields and production have grown at a remarkable rate, including wheat and rice. Cotton, oil seeds, and sugarcane output have all seen notable increases. In 2008–2009, India was the world’s top producer of jute and pulses. It is the second-largest producer of vegetables, rice, wheat, groundnuts, and sugarcane.
  • 2. The improvement of agricultural production in the nation and the introduction of modern agricultural civilization, including high-yielding seed types, chemical fertilisers, pesticides, and farm machinery, was made possible by the expansion of irrigation. Between 1950–1951 and 2000–2001, the net irrigated area in the nation expanded from 20.85 to 54.66 million hectares. Over these 50 years, the area irrigated more than once in an agricultural year has increased from 1.71 to 20.46 million hectare.
  • 3. Modern agriculture technologies have quickly extended throughout the nation’s numerous regions. Since the middle of the 1960s, the use of chemical fertilisers has grown by 15 times.

Answer 9.

Various causes are responsible for rural to urban migration of unskilled and unemployed workers in India.

  • The main reasons are:
  • 1. Lack of opportunities for job and income growth in rural locations.
  • 2. Due to poor agricultural production, there is insecurity with respect to income and food which rise in poverty and hunger.
  • 4. Income maximization via better job opportunities in urban areas.
  • 5. Inequitable distribution of benefits of economic development.
  • 6. For better educational facilities; the increased need for labour in cities; high standard of living.
  • Challenges of migration from rural to urban areas are:
  • 1. Due to their frequent separation from their families and children, migrants frequently experience anxiety.
  • 2. As a result of migration, people experience social isolation and a sense of hopelessness. Finally, it pushes migrants into antisocial behaviours like crime and drug misuse.
  • 3. Male migrants frequently abandon their family in rural regions, placing additional physical and psychological strain.


Answer 10.

(i) Location of station X is coastal because variation in temperature is less throughout the year. The minimum temperature is recorded near 24°C during January and February month. These month are the coldest months for inland such as northern plan.

(ii) Due to coastal location of station X, the South-west monsoon winds from the Arabian Sea normally strike this station. Because Arabian branch strike against the western ghats and cause heavy rain of above 250cm on west coastal plan. The graph shows rainy season start in June and reaches its maximum is July.
After July, the amount of rainfall received on this station declining and the rainy season is almost over with the retreat of the south west monsoon which starts in the month of October.

Answer 11.

(i) The Malwa Plateau: The Malwa Plateau roughly forms a triangle based on the Vindhyan Hills, bounded by the Aravali Range in the west and Madhya Bharat Pathar to the north and Bundelkhand to the east. This plateau has two systems of drainage; one towards the Arabian sea (The Narmada, the Tapi and the Mahi), and the other towards the Bay of Bengal (Chambal and Betwa, joining the Yamuna).In the north, it is drained by the Chambal and many of its right bank tributaries like the Kali, the Sindh and the Parbati. It also includes the upper courses of the Sindh, the Ken and the Betwa.

It is composed of extensive lava flow and is covered with black soils. The general slope is towards the north [decreases from 600 m in the south to less than 500 m in the north. This is a rolling plateau dissected by rivers. In the north, the plateau is marked by the Chambal ravines.

(ii) The Deccan Plateau: Deccan plateau is triangle plateau and covers an area of about five lakh sq km.It is triangular in shape and is bounded by the Satpura and the Vindhya in the north-west, the Mahadev and the Maikal in the north, the Western Ghats in the west and the Eastern Ghats in the east. Its average elevation is 600 metres although it rises to 1,000 metres in the south and dips to 500 metres in the north.
Rivers have furthur subdivided this plateau into a numbers of smaller plateaus. The general slope of this plateau is from west to east, that is why most of the rivers of the plateau flow from west to east. The Narmada and the Tapi are the two exceptions which flow from east to west.

Answer 12.

(i) (a) Sericulture is an agro-based industry. It involves rearing of silkworms for the production of raw silk, which is the yarn obtained out of cocoons spun by certain species of insects. The major activities of sericulture comprise of food-plant cultivation to feed the silkworms which spin silk cocoons and reeling the cocoons for unwinding the silk filament for value-added benefits such as processing and weaving.

Sericulture provides gainful activity in Chhattisgarh state because it provide employment, economic development and improvement in the quality of life to the people in rural area and therefore, it plays an important role in anti-poverty programme and prevents migration of rural people to urban area in search of employment. Silk is produced in small units usually done by individually farm families.

Chhattisgarh produces about 2.56 per cent of the total silk production of India. This state is way behind Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and West Bangal. Chhattisgarh produces mainly tasar silk which accounts for more than 97 per cent of the total production. The other varieties of silk produced in this state are mulberry and eri.

(b) Haldia Port has been development to release congestion at Kolkata port. This port is located at the confluence of rivers Hugli and Haldi about 150 km. downstream from Kolkata. It receives larger vessels which otherewise would have gone to Kolkata.

Some of the large vessels which cannot enter the Kolkata port can easily come upto Haldia. Haldia has an oil refinery and a fertilizer factory.

A large integrated petro-chemical plant has also been set up here. An important rail link connects Haldia with Kharagpur. The main items of trade area mineral oil and petroleum products. The hinterland of port Haldia is more or less the some as that of Kolkata.


(ii) (a) Condition of Growth: Rice is a tropical plant which requires high heat and high humidity. It grows well in areas having mean monthly temperature of 24°C and an average annual rainfall of 150 cm. It is mainly an irrigated crop which required rainfall above. In the areas of less rainfall, it grow with the help of different irrigation method such as canal irrigation and tubewell. This crop mainly grown in the plain of north and north-eastean India, coastal areas and the deltaic region.

Deep fertile clayey or loamy soils are considered ideal for rich cultivation. Rich is the predominant crop in flood-plain and river deltas. The successful growth of rice requires plenty of labour.

Rice is the most important food crop of India which field more than half of our population. India is the second largest producer of rice in the world after China and contributes nearly one-third of the world’s production of rice. About 29% of the total rice area of the world is in India and rice occupies about 23% of the cropped area of India. Rice is the staple food of millions of Indians living in moist areas.

(b) Conditions of Growth: Jute requires hot and humid climate with temperatures between 24°C and 35°C and rainfall over 150 cm. The relative humidity should be nearly Well-drained alluvial loamy soils, which are frequently renewed by floods, are best to the cultivation of jute.

Distribution: Over per cent of the total jute is produced in West Bengal along. Over 15% and 8% jute is produced in Bihar and Assam respectively. Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Meghalaya are other producers.

Answer 13.

(i) Indian Railway was introduced in 1853 when a line was constructed from Bombay to Thane covers a distance of 34 km.

(ii) The Indian railway system is important for transportation. Mostly people prefer taking the railroads, and moving products by train is more manageable.

Some of the advantages are as follows:

  • 1. Along with the movement of commodities, railways extend their services to include commerce, sightseeing, and pilgrimage.
  • 2. Long-distance travel is more accessible.
  • 3. It is essential for national integration.
  • 4. Agriculture and industrial development are strengthened.

(iii) Railways can carry a large number of passengers and goods. They are an environment friendly means of transport. Railways has reduced the time of travel to a few hours between two places as comparison to roadway. They are a relatively cheap means of transport mode for commercial as well as passengers.

ISC 36 Sample Question Papers

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