Sociology Unsolved Sample Paper Solutions ISC Class 12
(vi) An action or behaviour that is taboo is one that is restricted, forbidden, or otherwise deviates from what is deemed acceptable in society. Taboos have a moral foundation and may also be connected to a culture or religion. In one culture, an action could be considered taboo, but not in another. Taboos may be used for protective, productive, or even prohibited purposes.
(vii) Two detrimental effects of mass media are:
1. Graphic content and non-traditional texts are readily available. The younger generation’s process of personality development may be harmed as a result.
2. False news can frequently be produced and disseminated, which can aid in the spread of rumors and encourage vandalism.
(viii) The three laws that have empowered women in India are:
(ix) Polygyny is a type of marriage in which a man has two or more wives simultaneously, polyandry is a type of marriage in which a woman has two or more husbands at once.
(x) Right to Education Act describes modalities of the importance of free and compulsory education for children aged between 6-14 years in India under Article 21(A) of the Constitution of India. With its enactment, the Right to Education has become a Fundamental Right in the country.
(xi) Modernisation is the process of moving from a traditional, agrarian, rural society to an industrial, secular, urban one. Media expansion, rising literacy rates, and education are all aspects of modernisation. Additionally, modernisation has universal traits in a variety of fields, including economics, politics, education, and socio-cultural.
(xii) The fundamental distinction between science and religion is that faith-based religion calls for complete, unquestioning submission to the divine. While science urges its followers to scrutinize everything and not take anything at face value. Thus, while it is regarded as heresy in religion, thorough skepticism is a value in science.
(xiii) Parallel cousins means those cousins who are connected through own mother’s sister kids or father’s kids or in other word, siblings belong to same domain.
Cross cousins means those cousins who are connected just from the opposite sex of own mother or father for example father’s sister kids or mother’s brother kids.
(xiv) The fundamental goal of MGNREGA is to provide a pay for 100 days of unskilled employment in rural areas. In this scheme, employment is provided to workers over the age of 18 within a 5-kilometer radius of their residence. Under the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, the labourer is given a job to apply for within 15 days, and if there are any issues with the employment, the labourer is awarded an unemployment payment.
2. Following are the programmes started by the State governments and Central of India for tribal upliftment:
1. LAMP Scheme: The main goal of the NSTFDC and Adhivasi Mahila Sashakt Yojna (AMSY flagship) program, the Large-Sized Multipurpose Cooperative Societies (LAMPS) scheme, are to assist tribal women to improve their financial situation by engaging in livelihood activities. Other goals include giving tribal members interest-free short-term loans or agricultural credit for farming and agriculture, as well as providing the supplies they need for agriculture, such as seeds, fertilizer, and pesticides, at discounted prices.
2. 20-Point Programme: The 20-Point Programme’s main objectives are to eradicate poverty and raise the standard of living for the nation’s disadvantaged and impoverished population. Numerous socioeconomic issues, such as those pertaining to poverty, employment, education, housing, health, agriculture, drinking water, irrigation, protection and empowerment of underpriliviged groups, consumer protection, environment and land reforms, are addressed in the programme.
3 Hostels for ST/SC girls: The Indian government is providing financial support to all the state governments so they can build hostels for ST/SC girls, particularly those who are moving from their homes in the countryside to study or work in cities. Both the state governments and the indigenous girls or women have benefited greatly from many of these hostels.
4. For the purpose of rural tribal developement, Tribal Area Development Program (1962), Extensive Agriculture Program (1964), etc were formulated and implemented.
3. The difference between caste and class is as follows:
|(i)||Ascribed status: The caste of a particular person is based on the hereditary group which is birth based.||(i)||Achieved status: Class of a person is determined by wealth, status, education, and power.|
|(ii)||Closed system: A person cannot change his caste in whole life.||(ii)||Open system: A person can reach in higher class just by attaining wealth.|
|(iii)||Divine origin: Caste system is believed to be of divine origin.||(iii)||Secular: Class system has nothing to do with religion.|
|(iv)||Endogamous: Marriage of an individual happens in caste group only.||(iv)||Not Endogamous: Members of a class can choose their spouse freely.|
|(v)||Idea of purity and pollution: Caste associates the notion of purity and pollution. For e.g., earlier, lower castes were believed to be polluted.||(v)||Feeling of disparity: The lower class has a feeling of disparity with respect to wealth.|
4. Polygyny: Polygyny is a form of marriage in which one man marries more than one woman at a given time.
The following types of polygyny are possible:
The following may contribute to polygyny:
Polyandry: Polyandry is the marriage of one woman with several men.
The following varieties of polyandry are possible:
(a) Fraternal: When numerous brothers wed the same woman, it is called a fraternal union.
(b) Non-fraternal: In this type, the husbands need not have any close relationship prior to marriage. The wife goes to spend some time with each husband. So long as a woman lives with others have no claim over her.
Polyandry may have the following causes:
5. The pillars of society are the social institutions. Religion, family and education system are some of the examples of social system.
The following are some characteristics of social institutions:
6. The significance of family in human life must be considered in light of the many roles that families play in both individual lives and society as a whole. According to Maciver, there are two major types of functions of family.
(a) Economic function: Family provides for the requirements of its members economically. This has historically been a family’s role. The family’s growth and advancement are financed by the revenue its members make.
(b) Socio-cultural function: Family ensures the cultural survival of the society. It transfers beliefs and values from one generation to the next as well as folkways, rituals, and traditions. It acquaints the kids with a greater culture and gets them ready to participate in the bigger world.
Due to these reasons, Murdock claimed that family is universal across all cultures.
7. (i) The exercise of social control can be done informally by instilling moral ideals or formally by enforcing rules and regulations including laws, policies, religious standards. A person can acquire moral principles through the family, educational system, and social environment.
Moral principles so naturally assist in governing society in the following ways:
(ii) Jajmani system refers to an interdependent system in the Indian villages where each caste is supposed to provide standardised services to the other castes. For example– Brahmins are meant to perform rituals and religious ceremonies, Kumhars make earthen pots, nai or barber is supposed to cut hair, Chamar is the shoemaker, darji is supposed to stitch clothes, dhobi’s duty is to wash and iron the clothes, gadaria are the herdsmen and bania sells the things of day to day needs. The jajmani relationships are permanent and hereditary. It helps in providing security of occupation and ensures economic security as the ‘jajman’ looks after all the needs of the serving family. The payment of the jajmani system is mostly in kind and the relationship between the jajman and the prajan is more personal than economic.
8. (i) People from various regions share a strong desire to enhance their own regions’ conditions and bring them into parity with more developed regions. This desire is known as regionalism. As long as regionalism is in a healthy state, there won’t be any issue but regionalism becomes its most repulsive form when one regional group harbours strong feelings against other regions.
Many political figures frequently use regionalism as a way to win over different votebanks. Due to their regional roots, many regional parties, like a party in Tamil Nadu, gained support and its local leaders started to gain prominence in their home states.
Features of regionalism:
(ii) The following are the functions of traditional markets in rural India:
9. (i) The Mass Media is a `channel of communication’. It is a means through which people send and receive information. Newspapers, radio, television, the internet, magazines, etc. are examples of common mass media. For information on social issues, political issues, entertainment, economy, etc., people rely on the media.
The various types of mass media are:
1. Print media: Newspapers, magazines, brochures, news letters, books, booklets, and pamphlets are all examples of print media. Since photography is a significant mass media that communicates through visual representations, it can also be called print media.
2. Traditional media: It appeals to the minds and hearts of the local populace. The traditional media includes performing arts, folk theatre like West Bengal’s Yatra and Manipur’s Shumang Leela, puppet shows, and more.
3. Electronic media: This mass media includes television and radio. This category also includes electronic media like movies, CDs and DVDs as well as the new hottest electronic gadgets.
4. New media: Mobile devices, computers, and the internet are frequently referred to as new media. Email, websites, blogs, Internet TV, and other popular mass media have all been made possible by the internet and are currently experiencing explosive growth.
(ii) Social growth must go hand in hand with social change if future utility is to be ensured. Social change refers to the changes encountered in society. A sustainable development is one that “meets the demands of the present generations, without compromising the ability of the future generations to satisfy their own needs,” according to the United Nations. The goal of sustainable development is to strike a balance between the ecological, technological and cultural facets of social change.
Innovations introduced without taking into account the traditional knowledge of recipient cultures may harm the local biodiversity. It is not sustainable to disregard traditional ecological knowledge.
In India, social change is pervasive and can be seen in all facets of daily life. But, social growth usually undergoes delayed cultural transformation. When technological breakthroughs are not accompanied by a shift in attitudes and values, they frequently leave behind cultural lag and a range of related societal problems. On the one hand, it is advancing toward prosperity and progress, on the other hand, it also has a depressing side that is tarnished by ignorance, injustice, and poverty.
10. Indian society is facing multiple gender related issues due to patriarchal ideology. Three gender related issues are as follows:
1. Dowry: Dowry suicides and murders have been a major source of concern in India. If parents of average means are unable to pay the required dowry, their daughter will stay unmarried; if they are able to do so, they will incur significant debt.
2. Sexual harassment at workplace: It is described as an inappropriate sexual activity. Whether in a developed country, a developing country, or an underdeveloped one, sexual harassment at the workplace is a ubiquitous problem. Atrocities against women are pervasive generally in most working places.
3. Female foeticide: Female foeticide is practice of killing a girl child even before she is born.This is practiced as girl child is considered as a burden in family.
Following acts are in place to deal with these issues:
1. Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961: If any person, after the commencement of this Act, gives or takes or abets the giving or taking of dowry, he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than five years.
2. Prevention of Women from Sexual Harassment Act 2013: The POSH Act, as mandatory compliance, requires every company having more than ten employees to constitute an Internal Complaints Committee (ICC) in the prescribed manner to receive and address the complaints of any sort of sexual harassment from women in a time-bound and extremely confidential manner.
3. Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (PCPNDT) Act, 1994: The PCPNDT Act forbids the use of prenatal diagnostic procedures with the possibility of sex selection (pre implantation genetic diagnosis) both before and after conception. This applies to all genetic counselling centres, genetic laboratories, and genetic clinics.
11. The concepts of ‘sacred and profane’ are central to Durkheim’s theory of religion. According to him, all aspects of human experience can be divided into two radically and diametrically opposed categories: the sacred and the profane. Durkheim says that the sacred is ideal and transcends ‘everyday existence;
it is extraordinary, potentially dangerous, awe-inspiring, and fear-inducing. The sacred for Durkheim refers to things set apart by man, including religious beliefs, rites, duties, or anything socially defined as requiring special religious treatment. The sacred has extraordinary, supernatural, and often dangerous qualities and can usually be approached only through some form of rituals, such as prayer, incantation, or ceremonial cleansing. According to Durkheim, almost anything can be sacred: a god, a rock, a cross, a tree, etc. However, the profane is mundane, that is, anything ordinary. It is that which is not supposed to come in contact with or take precedence over the sacred. The ‘unholy’ or the ‘profane’ is also believed to contaminate the ‘holy’ or the ‘sacred’.
The sacred and the profane are, therefore, closely related because of the highly emotional attitude towards them. As Durkheim has pointed out that the circle of sacred objects cannot be determined once and for all because its extent varies indefinitely according to different religions. The significance of the sacred lies in its distinction from the profane. The sacred thing is par excellence that which profane should not touch and cannot touch with impurity.
12. (i) According to Murdock, family performs four essential functions which are as follows:
(ii) After 18th century with industrialisation availability of more leisure time, free time provided by the modern organisation of work led to change or transformation in intimacies. During this period personal relations are based on romantic intimacies and love.
This led to following structural changes in institution of family :
1. Conjugal relation and authority structure: Relation between husband and wife today is based more on cooperation rather than domination and women are also playing increasing role in decision making and finance.
2. Authority structure is changing: Authority of aged members is decreasing, individualism and achievement orientation has altered the authority structures within the family.
3. Greater incidences of divorce: Now taking divorce is easy and it is not considered a taboo.
4. Rise of traditionally non-institutionalised features: Live-ins, single parent family, family have increased. E.g., legal surrogacy, adoption. Live-in relationships have increased due to urbanisation, economic freedom, individuation, anonymity in urban settlement, and there is transiency in social relation due to mobility and avoidance of binding commitments for individual goals.
5. Protective function: The protective function of family has declined, particularly in the western countries. Families are no more the place of protection for the physically handicapped, mentally retarded, aged, diseased, infirm, etc. Other agencies have taken over this function.
(iii) Family, according to classical definition, refers to a social group based on marital relation, rights and duties, common habitation, reciprocal relation and emotional bond.
Classical thinkers like Burgess and Locke defined family as a group of persons united by ties of marriage, blood relation or adoption, constituting a single household interacting with each other in their social roles of father, mother, son, daughter, etc.
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